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W. W. MERRY, D.D. 



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THIS little volume is an attempt to meet a difficulty 

which is often felt by young students of Roman poetry, 

the want of a convenient handbook, containing a 

^ sufficiently representative selection from the fragments 


x which have, been preserved of the epic, dramatic, and 
satiric poets of Rome, from the earliest times of the 
Republic to the Augustan age. 

From the Comedies of Plautus and Terence we can 

learn all that we require of the Fabulae Palliatae, as 

y exhibited on the stage. But to form any idea of 

<] Roman Tragedy, or of the peculiarly national Prae- 

textae and Togatae (or Tabernariae), we must make the 

^ best use we can of the remains of Pacuvius and Accius, 

tf of Atta, Titinius, and Afranius. Nor shall we ap- 

< preciate the growth of the Epic, which culminates in 

Virgil, nor of the Satire as presented to us by Horace 

and Juvenal, without some study of the fragments of 

Livius, Naevius, and Ennius, of Lucilius and Varro. 

But this implies access to a good many books, which 
are not always easily procurable ; and, even then, unless 
we have some clue to their connection, the scattered 
fragments are often unintelligible. The object of this 


volume is to supply such a clue. No doubt there is a 
constant danger of suggesting- a fanciful explanation; 
and the endeavour to work isolated lines into the plot of 
a play or the subject of a satire may be, here and there, 
nothing better than a piece of misplaced ingenuity. 
But so much has been done for the interpretation of 
Ennius by Vahlen and L. Miiller, and for the remains 
of Roman Tragedy and Comedy by O. Ribbeck, that, 
with such experienced guides, one may hope to have 
gone not very far astray. Besides the collections of 
fragments edited by Ribbeck (which are indispensable to 
every student of the Roman drama), there are two other 
books by the same scholar Die romische Trarjodie, and 
Geschickte der romischen I)icMiing\\\\\eh are very help- 
ful. For the Saturae of Lucilius, the notes in Words- 
worth's Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin are 
most valuable, as far as they go. The Saturae Menip- 
peae of Varro have been adapted from Riese's edition, 
with some aid from Biicheler. For the remains of other 
poets, constant use has been made of E. Bahrens' Yray- 
menta Poetarum Romanorum. But no attempt has been 
made in the present volume to present a critical text, 
or to settle questions of metrical arrangement. The 
editor has endeavoured to avail himself of the best 
sources ; and he will be amply satisfied if he shall have 
succeeded in making the study of these Fragments more 
easy and more interesting. 

W. W. M. 

OXFORD, September, 1891. 


Carmen Saliare .... i 

Carmen Fratrum Arva- 

lium 2 

Vaticinia, Sententiae, Prae- 

cepta 2 

Scipionum Elogia ... 4 

Livius Andronicus : 

Odisia 7 

Tragoediae 10 

Ex incertis fabulis . . 12 

Cn. Naevius : 

Tragoediae 14 

Praetextae 19 

Naevii et Mstellorum 

altercatio .... 20 

Palliatae 21 

Ex incertis fabulis . . 24 

Bellum Punicum . . 25 

Q. Ennius : 

Annales 31 

Tragoediae 48 

Saturae 64 

Ambracia 65 

Epicharmus .... 65 

Hedyphagetica ... 66 

Epigrammata .... 67 

M. Pacuvius : 

Tragoediae 68 

Praetexta 90 

Caecilius Statius : 

Palliatae 92 

Aquilius : 

Boeotia 102 

Licinius Imbrex : 

Neaera 103 

Titinius : 

Togatae 104 

Seztus Turpilius : 

Palliatae 108 

L. Accius : 

Tragoediae . . . .112 

Praetextae 139 

Fragmenta 143 

C. Lucilius : 

Saturae 146 

T. Quinctius Atta : 

Togatae 1 59 

L. Afranius : 

Togatae 161 

Pompilius : 

Epigramma . . . .171 
Valerius Aedituus : 

Epigrammata . . . . 1 73 
Q. Lut atius Catulus : 

Epigrammata . . . . 1 73 
Porcius Licinus . . . . 1 74 
Volcatius Sedigitus : 

Poetarum comicorum 
aestimatio . . . .176 

In Terentium . . . .176 

Hostius 178 

A. Furius Antias . . . . 1 79 



Cn. Matius : 

Ilias 180 

Mimiambi 180 

Laevius : 

Erotopaegnia, &c. . . 182 

Sueius : 

Morctum, &c. . . .186 

Novius : 

Atellanae 187 

Pomponius : 

Atellanae 190 

M. Terentius Varro : 

Saturae Menippeae . . 196 
Ex libro imaginum . . 223 

M. T. Cicero : 

Marius 225 

Limon 226 

De consulatu suo . . 226 
Ex Graecis conversa . 230 
Epigramma, &c. . . . 236 

Decimus Laberius : 

Mimus 237 

M. Furius Bibaculus : 

Ludicra 242 

Annales 243 

C. lulius Caesar : 

Indicium de Terentio . 245 

P. Terentius Varro Ataci- 
nus : 

Argonautae .... 246 
Chorographia . . . . 248 
Ephemeris 248 

Publilius Syrus : 

Mimus 250 

Sententiae 251 

C. Helvius Cinna : 

Ludicra 253 

Propempticon Pollionis 253 

Zmyrna 254 

Epigramma .... 254 

Populares Versus . . , 255 

C. Licinius Macer Calvus : 

Epithalamia . . . .257 

Io 257 

Ludicra 258 

L. Varius Rufus : 

De Morte 259 

M. Tullius Laurea : 

Epigramma .... 260 






THESE fragments may, perhaps, be arranged into rude Saturnians ; 
but the language is hardly intelligible, in spite of ingenious con- 
jectures. In Horace's time (Ep. 2. i. 85) the ' Saliare carmen 
Numae ' was a puzzle ; and Quintilian (Inst. Or. i. 6. 40), acknow- 
ledges that the priests themselves did not understand the words. 


Divum empta cante, divum deo supplicants. 

[VAKBO, L. L., 7. 26, 27.] 

For empta Bergk proposes templa, Bahrens parentem ; cante = 
canite, as supplicants = supplicate ; divum deo, i. e. lanus (Macrob. 
Sat. i. 9). 


Cume tonas Leucesie prae tet tremonti 
quom tibi cunei decstumum tonaront. 

[TERENT. SCAUR. 2661 P.] 

Owme = cum; Leucesie = lord of light (Macrob. Sat. i. 15) ; prae tet 
tremonti = praetremunt te(d) (Fest. 295) ; cunei = bolts ; decstumum = 
' on the right.' 




AN inscription from the Acts of the Arval Brotherhood, found 
in Rome in A. D. 1778. The actual copy of the old Latin, more or 
less correct, apparently belongs to the time of Elagabalus. 

i. Enos Lases iuvate (ter) 

Neve lue rue Marmar sins inciirrere in pleores (ter). 

Satur fu fere Mars limen sail sta berber (ter) 

Semunis alternei advocapit conctos (ter). 
5. Enos Marmor iuvato (ter) 

Triumpe. (quinquies). 

1. i. mos = nos; with the form cp. E-castor ; Lases = Lares. 1. 2. 
Zwe = luem ; rwe = ruinam; sins = sines, 'thou shalt not, must not, 
suifer' ; as advocapit (inf.) = advocabitis. 1. 3. /w = esto, 'be 

satiate, fierce Mars ' ! limen sali = ' leap over, or cross (thy temple's) 
threshold ' ; sta berber (verbera ?) ' stop thy scourging ' ; or (ad- 
dressed to each dancing priest) ' leap on the threshold ! halt ! smite 
(the ground).' 1. 4. semunis (se-homo, homones) =' super- 

human powers.' 



DURING the siege of Veii (B. c. 395), commissioners came from 
Delphi 'sortem oraculi adferentes congruentem responso captivi 
vatis' (Liv. 5. 16). The utterance of the oracle, as given in Livy, 
is readily arranged, with slight alteration, in Saturnian measure, 
which Bilhrens thus gives ; referring the legend about the 
prophecy to the age of Naevius and Livius Andronicus : 

Romane, aquam Albanam cave lacu teneri, 
cave in mare manare | fliimine sinas suo. 
emissa agros rigabis j dissipatam rivis 


exstingues : turn tu insiste | audax hostium muris. 
memor quam per tot annos | obsides lirbem, 
ex ea tibi his fatis | mine datam victoriam, 
duello perfecto donum | portato amplum victor 
ad mea templa, sacraque | patria quorum ciira est 
omi'ssa, ut adsolet, | endostaurata facito. 


APPIUS Claudius Caecus, censor B. c. 312, consul 307, 296, was 
the ' great patrician . . . with whom begins the first attempt at 
Latin prose-composition and at art-poetry,' Teuffel, R. L., 90. 


^i w w qui, animi | compotem esse, 
ne quid fraudis pariat | ferocia stuprique. 

[FESTUS, stuprum pro turpitudine.] 


Amicum cum. vides | obliscere 1 miserias ; 
inimicus sies commentus, | nee libens aeque. 

[PEISCIAN, s. v. commentus = aea^xpiafitvosJ] 


Est unus qufsque faber | ipse suae fortiinae. 

[PSEUDO-SAI.LUST, De Ord. Rep. i. i. 2.] 


' MARCIUS the prophet ' lived some time before the second Punic 
War (Cic. De Div. i. 50. 115 ; Liv. 25. 12, &c.). 


Postremus dicas, primus | taceas ^ w. 

[ISIDOR. 6. 8. 12.] 

1 obliscere, Fleckeisen. oUiviscere, codd. 
B 2 



Ne mngulus mederi | queat ^> w ^7. 

[PAULUS, 176, ningulus = nullus.] 


Quamvfs movetis odium | diionum ne negumate. 

[FESTTJS, 165, negumate = negate.] 


Religentem esse oportet | religiosus ne seis. 

[AUL. GELL. 4. 9. i.] 

Est pessimum malum | consilium consultori. 

[AuL. GELL. 4. 5. 5.] 



FROM the monument of the Scipios, near the Appian Way. 


Epitaph on L. Cornelius Seipio Barbatus, consul 298, censor 
290 B. c. 

i. Cornelius Lucius Seipio Barbatus ; 

Gnaivod patre prognatus fortis vir sapiensque, 


quoiiis forma virtutef parisuma fiiit, 
consol censor aidilis quei fuit apud vos, 
5. Taurasia Cisaiina Samnio cepit 

subigit omne Loucanam opsidesque abdoiicit. 

1. 3. parisuma = parissima. 1. 5. Taurasia[m~], Cisauna[m] ) Samnio 
= 'in Samnium.' 


L. Cornelius L. f. Scipio, consul 259, censor 258 B. c. 
(The Italic letters show where the stone has been broken away.) 

i. Hone oi'no ploirume cosentiont Homdne 

duonoro optumo fui'se viro viroro 

Lucloni Scipione. Filios Barbati 

consol censor aidilis hie fuet apud vos. 
5. hec cepit Corsica Aleriaque urbe pugnandod 

dedet Tempestatebus aide meretod vdtam. 

1. i. omo = unum; ploimme = plurimi (as in Romane). 1.2. 

duonoro (as in 11. 3, 5, 6) with final m dropped. 1. 4. fuet (as 
dedet} perf. indie. 1. 6. aide = aedem ; meretod=merito. 


P. Cornelius P. f. Scipio, son of Scipio Africanus maior, B. c. 

i. Quei apice insigne Dialis jf?aminis gesistei 
mors perfect tua ut essent omnia brevia, 
honos fama virtiisque gloria atque ingenium ; 
quibiis sei in longa licuiset tibe litier vita, 

5. facile facteis superases gloriam maiorum. 
quare lubens te in gremiu, Scipio, r6cipit 
terra, Publi, prognatuni Piiblio, Cornell. 

1. i. apice, insigne, with final m dropped. 1. 3. farm, nom., as 
terra. 1. 7. Publi, Cornell, vocatives, while prognatum takes up te. 



L. Cornelius Scipio Cn. f. Cn. n. This Scipio, a son and a 
grandson of a Gnaeus, is not otherwise known. 

i. Magna sapientia multasque virtutes 

aetate quom parva posidet hoc saxsum, 

quoiei vita defecit non honos honore. 

is hie situs quei nunquam victus est virtutei. 
5. annos gnatus viginti is Diteist mandatus, 

ne quairatis honore quei minus sit manddtus. 

1. i. magna, accus. 1. 2. quom, prep. = cum. 1. 3. honos, 

konore(tn), in double sense, 'worth' and 'preferment.' 1. 4. vir- 
tutei, abl. 'in goodness.' 1. 5. Ditei est (Diti, Dis) ; al. kto est; or 
facets = 'resting-place.' 1. 6. honore(m), 'ask not about his office, 
seeing that none was assigned him.' He died too young. 


Cn. Cornelius Cn. f. Scipio Hispanus, cousin of Scipio Afri- 
canus major ; praetor in B. c. 139. With the exception of a few 
verses of Ennius, these are the earliest elegiacs preserved. 

i. Virtutes generis mieis moribus accumulavi, 
progenie mi genui, facta patris petiei. 

3. Maiorum optenui laudem ut sibei me esse creatum 
laetentur, stirpem nobilitavit honos. 

1. i. mieis = meis, monosyllable. 1. 2. progenie(m) mi: if this 
reading be right, progenie must be pronounced as three syllables ; 
al. progeniem genui, ib. petiei 'have sought to attain,' 'have ensued.' 
1. 4. honos, ' office.' 



1. Viriim mihi, Camena | insect versutum. 

[Od. i. I.] 

2. Pater noster, Saturni | filie, rex summe. 

[Od. 1.45,85.] 

3. Mea puer, quid verbi | ex tuo ore supera 


[Od. i. 64.] 

4. ^- neque enim te oblitus, | Lerti6, sum, noster. 

[_0d. i. 65.] 

5. Argenteo polubro | aiireo eclutro. 

[Od. i. 136.] 

6. Tuque mihi narrato | 6mnia disertim. 

[Od. i. 169.] 

7. Quae haec daps est ? qui festus | dies o o . 

[Od. r. 225.] 

8. w w matrem procitum | plurimi venerunt. 

[Od. i. 248.] 

9. Aut in Pyliim adv^niens | aiit ibf ommentans. 

[Od. 2. 317.] 

1. i. insece tvvctrt. 1. 5. polubro, ' basin ' ; ib. eclutro = (K\ovrp<fr, 
4 bath.' 1. 8. procitum (procieo), ' to woo ' : Paul. 225. 1. 9. ow- 
meHtans, fr. mento, frequent, of maneo. 


10 tiimque remos 

iussit religare stnippis . 

[Od. 2. 422.] 

11. Ibfdemque vir summus | adprimus Patroclus. 

[Od. 3. 1 10.] 

12. Quando dies adveniet, | quern profata Morta est. 

[Od. 2. 99 ; 3. 227.] 

13. Atque escas habeamus | rusus mentionem. 

[Od, 4. 213.] 

14. Partim errant, nequeinont | Graeciam redire. 

[Od. 4. 495.] 

15. Sancta puer Saturni | maxima reglna. 

[Od. 4. 513.] 

16. Apiid nimpham Atlantis | filiam Calipsonem. 

[Od. 4. 557.] 

17. Igitur demiim Uli'xi | frixit prae pavore 


[Od. 5. 297.] 

1 8. Celsos ocri's arvaque | Neptuni et mare magnum. 

[Od. 5. 411.] 

19. Utrum genua amploctens | virginem oraret. 

[Od. 6. 142.] 

20. Ibi manens sedeto, j donicum videbis. 

me carpento vehentem | en domiim venisse. 

[Od. 6. 295.] 

21. Simul ac lacrimas de ore | noegeo detersit. 

[Od. 8. 88.] 

22. Namque nullum plus corpus j macerat humanum 
quamde mare saevom : vires | cuf sunt magnae, topper 

confrfngent inportunae | lindae . . . 

[Od. 8. 138.] 

1. 10. stnippis = rpoiroTs. 1. 12. Morta, one of the Parcae, goddess 
of death (Aul. Gell. 3. 16. n). 1. 13. escas, genitive : rusus = 

rursus. 1. 20. donicum donee. 1. 21. noegeo, Fest. 174 'amiculi 
genus praetextum purpura.' 1, 22. topper = toto opere, ' thoroughly.' 


23. Venit Mercurius ciimque eo | filius Latonas. 

[Od. 8. 322.] 

24. Nexabant multa inter se | flexu nodorum 


[Od. 8. 378.] 

25. Nam divina Monetas | filia docuit. 

[Od. 8. 480.] 

26. ... infer 

an superus tibi fert dius | funera, Ulixes? 

[Od. 10. 64.] 

27. Topper facit homones | ut prius fuerunt. 

[Od. 10. 395.] 

28. Topper citi ad aedis | venimiis Circae ; 
simiil advenit, servae | portant ad naves. 

ediilia alma, vi'na | isdem inferiniintur. 

[Od. 12. 17.] 

29. . . . parcentes | praemodum 

[Od. 12. 321.] 

30. . . . sic quoque fitum est. 

[Od. 13. 4 o.] 

31. ... affatim edi, 

bibi, lusi. 

[Od. 15. 373.] 

32. Quoin rem earn audivi | hau paucus gavisL 

[Od. 1 6. 92.] 

33. ... vecorde 

et malefica vac^rra. 

[Od. 17. 248.] 

34. Vestis pulla purpiirea | ampla . . . 

[Od. 19. 225.] 

35. . . . dusmoso in l6co. 

[Od. 19. 439.] 

1. 23. Latonas, genitive. 1. 25. Monelas Mi>T]iJiOffvvT]s. 1. 30. fitum 
est = fit ; so fitur, potestur. 1. 32. gavisi = gavisus sum. 1. 33. ra- 
cerra, 'log,' 'block.' Cod. vecordia. 1. 35. dusmoso = dumoso. 


36. Cum socios nostros Ciclops | impius mandisset. 

[Od. 20. 19.] 

37. Inque manum suremit | hastam . . 

[Od. 21. 433.] 

38. ... at celeris 
hasta volans perriimpit | pectora ferro. 

[Od. 22. g r.] 

39. Carnis vinumque quod | libabant, anclabatur. 

[Od. 23. 304.] 

40. Deque manibus dextrabus j . . . 

[Od. 24. 534.] 

1. 37. suremit. Paul, in Fest. 299, suremit = sumpsit. 1. 39. andabatur 
(anculus, ancilla) = ministrabatur. 



THE words in this fragment may be supposed to be uttered by 
Achilles, after the offer of reparation described in Horn. II. g. 

Si malos imitabo, turn tu pretium pro noxa dabis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pretium : imitat.] 


THE play opens with the preparations of the Greek host for 
their return from Troy (I). On the smooth seas of their home- 
ward voyage, they watch the dolphins playing round the ships 
(II) ; and a chorus of thanksgiving is raised to the gods (III). 


Agamemnon is seen taking his seat at the banquet (IV) ; and then 
being stabbed and falling to the ground (V). Electra speaks bitterly 
to her mother over her father's corpse (VI) ; and Aegisthus orders 
her (or, perhaps, Cassandra) to be dragged away from the altar at 
which she had taken refuge (VII). 


nam ut Pergama 
accensa et praeda per participes aequiter 

partita est. 

[NONIUS, s. i: aequiter.] 


Turn autem lascivum Nerei simum pecus 

ludens ad cantum classem lustratiir. . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. lustrare : pecus.] 


Solemnitusque deo litat laudem lubens. 

[NONIUS, s. v. solemnitus.] 


in sedes conlocat se regias : 

Clutemestra iuxtim, tertias natae occupant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. iuxtim.] 


Ipsus se in terram saiicius fligit cadens. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fligi.] 


lamne oculos specie laetavisti optabili? 

[NONIUS, s. v. laetare : species.] 


Quin quod parere mihi vos maiestas mea 

procat toleratis temploque hanc deducitia? 

[NONIUS, s. r. procare = poscere.] 



THE lament of Teucer over man's ingratitude. 
Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius 

verno gelu tabescit. J 

[NONIUS, s. v. gelu, neutr.) 


A FLOOD is sent by Neptune upon the land of Cepheus because 
of Cassiopea's reckless boast about her daughter's beauty, to the 
disparagement of the Nereids. 

Confluges ubi conventu campum totum inumigant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. confluges.] 


THIS play probably follows the same lines as the Sinon of 
Sophocles. The scene may be the appearance of Cassandra, fire- 
brand and axe in hand, to destroy the Wooden Horse, while she 
prays Apollo that her prophetic words may find credence. 

Da mihi hasce opes 
quas peto, quas precor : 

porrige ! opitula ! 

[Nomus, s. v. opitula.] 


See inf. under Laevius, page 183. 


Florem anculabant Liberi ex carchesiis. 

[PAULI FEST. s. v. anclare = haurire.] 

1 Cp. Soph. Ai. 1266 4>G' rov Oavovros us raxfia TIS PporoTs \ XP' S 
Siappei, Kal irpoSovff' a\iffKtTcu. 



THE next fragment may possibly be referred to the Aegisthvs, 
sup. ; in which case ' the toothless infant whom the mother reared 
with the support of her milk ' will be Orestes. 

Quern ego nefrendem alui lacteam immulgens 1 opem. 

[PAULI TEST. s. v. nefrens.] 

1 Cp. Aesch. Choeph. 897 irpds <3 av ttoXXd. S^ ftpifav apa \ ovKoiaiv 




AESIONA (better known to us in the Greek form, Hesione), 
the daughter of Laomedon, was rescued from a sea-monster by 
Hercules and Telamon, who were to claim the maiden on their 
return from Colchis. 

But Laomedon, with his usual bad faith, broke his promise, and 
this fragment may contain the threat of Hercules or Telamon, that 
the father shall be chastened not with mere words (lingua), but with 
the sword-blade (lingula). 

Ne mihi gerere morem videar lingua verum lingula. 

[AuL. GELL. 10. 25.] 


THE advice of a mother to her son. 

Quod tu, mi gnate, quaeso ut in pectus tuum 

demittas, tanquam in fiscinam vindemitor. 

[SERV. in Verg. Georg. i. 266.] 


ACHISIUS immures his daughter Danae in a brazen tower, but 
lupiter finds means to enter the stronghold. He may be supposed 
to be speaking confidentially to Mercury, before the maiden 
is imprisoned (I), extolling her beauty, and acknowledging 


the mastery of Love (II). Acrisius accuses DanaS, and all other 
women, of incontinence (III, IV) ; and justifies her punishment 
(V). DanaS is banished from her home by her angry father (VI) ; 
and all that ' shower of gold ' has profited her nothing (VII). In 
her distress she prays lupiter to give her a sign from heaven (VIII) ; 
and her prayer is granted (IX). 


Contempla placide formam et faciem Virginia. 

[NONIUS, s. r. contempla.] 


Onines formidant homines eius valentiam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. valentia.] 


Desiibito famam tollunt si quam solam videre in via. 

[Nonius, s. v. desubito.] 


Earn compotem scis mine esse inventam probri. 

[NONIUS, s. v. compotem, in mala parte.] 

Quin ut quisque est meritus praesens pretium pro factis 


[NONIUS, s. r. pretium.] 

. . . indigne exigor patria innocens. 

[NONIUS, s. v. exigor.] 


Male parta male dilabuntur. 

[Cic. Phil. 2. 27.] 


Manubias 1 suppetiat prone . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. manubiae.] 

1 manubiae, in the technical language of the augurs, meant 
' flashes of lightning.' Serv. in Verg. Aen. 2. 259. 



Suo sonitu claro fiilgorivit Iiippiter. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fulgorivit.] 


THE main subject of this play was the setting out of Hector 
to battle. Proud of his father's praise (I), he designs to burn the 
Greek fleet, and leave not one man alive (II). See Horn. 11. 8. 132, 
173 ; 12. 73. 


Laetus sum laudari me abs te, pater, a laudato viro. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 4. 31 ; 5. 12 ; Ad Fam. 15. 6.] 


Tune ipsos adoriant, ne qui hinc Spartam referat nuntium. 

[PRISCIAN, 8. p. 801 P. s. v. adorio.] 


THIS fragment is apparently taken from an Iphigenia in Tauris. 
The prayer, ' that the North Wind may spread his wings and 
waft me home,' may be uttered by Orestes or by his sister, or by 
one of her home-sick maidens, weary of their life in Scythia. 

Passo velod vicinum, Aquilo, med in portum fer foras. 

[NONIUS, s. v. passum = extensum.] 


WE are told by Sophocles (Antig. 955 foil.) how Lycurgus, 
son of Dryas, the haughty king of the Edoni, sought to stop the 
revels of the Bacchanals ; and how Dionysus punished him for his 
insolence. The play of Naevius follows the general outline of the 
Bacchae of Euripides ; and the fate of Lycurgus corresponds with 
that of Pentheus, as there described. The king's watchmen report 
the appearance of the frenzied Maenads, trampling down the crops, 
and chanting wild songs (I-III). He orders his guards to draw 


them into the deep forest ; to trap them there like birds in a snare, 
and to put them to death (IV-VI). But they suspect the king's 
intention : ' he means to hunt them down, and to conduct the 
revellers from his groves, with savage vengeance as their guerdon ' 
(VII). But the king's behest shall not stop them ! (VIII). Then 
the guards bring the Wine-god before the king, who questions them 
as to the capture (IX). He threatens his prisoner ; but is warned 
not to try conclusions with him (X, XI). Lycurgus and Liber 
proceed to altercation (XII, XIII) ; meanwhile the guards return 
and report in amaze the sportive fearlessness of the Bacchae (XIV- 
XVI). Then Liber calls down fire from heaven, and all the king's 
palace bursts into flame, brilliant as a flower (XVII, XVIII) ; while 
a loud voice is heard, summoning Lycurgus forth (XIX). 


Alte iubatos angues in sese ferunt. 

[NONIUS, s. v. angues.] 

Liberi sunt ; quaque incedunt omnes arvas opterunt. 

[NONIUS, s. r. arvas, femin.~] 


suavisoniim melos. 

[NONIUS, s. r. melos.] 

Vos qui regalis corporis custodias 
agitatis, ite actutum in frundiferos locos, 

ingenio arbusta ubi nata sunt, non obsita. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ingenio = sua sponte.] 



eo cum argutis linguis mutas quadrupedes. 

[NONIUS, s. v. mutus.] 

Sublime in altos saltus inlicite invios 

ubi bipedes volucres lino linquant liimina. 

[NONIUS, s. r. inlicere.] 



Ut in venatu vitulantes ex suis 

lucis nos mittat poenis decoratas feris. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vitulantes = gaudentes.] 



thyrsigerae Bacchae Bacchico cum schemate. 

[NONIUS, s. t\ schema.] 


Die quo pacto eum potiti, pugnan an dolis ? 

[NoNius, s. v. potior cum accus.~\ 


Ne ille mei feri ingeni [iram] atque animi acrem acri- 


[NoNius, s. v. acrimonia.] 


Cave sis tuam contendas iram contra cum ira Liberi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. contendere = comparare.] 


'Oderunt di homines iniuros.' 'Egone an ille iniurie 

facimus ? ' 

[NONIUS, s. v. iniurie = iniuriose.] 


Sic quasi amnis celeris rapit, sed tamen inflexu flectitur. 

[NoNius, s. v. amnis, /ewn'w.] 


lam ibi nos duplicat advenientis maximus timos pavos. 

[NoNius, s. v. timos = timor.] 



Namque ludere lit laetantes inter sese vidimus 

propter amnem, aquam creterris siimere ex fonte . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. creterra.] 


sfne terrore pecua ut ad mortem meant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pecua.] 


. . . ut videam Volcani opera haec flammis fieri flora. 

[See AUL. GELL. 3. 9. 3.] 


Longe lateque transtros nostros fervere. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fervere.] 


Proinde hue Dryante r6gem prognatum patre 

Lyciirgum cette ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. cette = cedite, date.] 



THE title of the play is uncertain and the scanty remains leave 
the subject hopelessly obscure. Perhaps the Veientine king Viba 
visits Amulius, but is coldly received. He is questioned, somewhat 
contemptuously, as to the troubles in the state of Veii (I, II). 

C 2 



Rex Veiens regem salutat Viba Albanum Amulium 
comiter senem sapientem. ' Contra redhostis ? ' ' Min 

salust ? ' 

[FESTUS, s. v. redhostire = referre gratiam.] 


' Cedo qui rem vestram publicam tantam amisistis tarn 

cito ? ' 

' proveniebant oratores novef, stulti adulescentuli.' 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. 7. 20.] 


THIS play recounts the victory of Marcellus over the Gallic 
chieftain, Virdumarus, whom he attacked while besieging the 
Roman dependency, Clastidium, and stripped him of the ' spolia 

Vita insepulta laetus in patriam redux. 

[VAKRO, L. L. g. 78.] 

The Clastidium may have been acted on the occasion of Marcellus' 
triumph, or at the funeral games after his death ; or, perhaps 
when Claud. Marcellus dedicated the temple to Virtus, which his 
father had vowed seventeen years before. 


Naevius maintained that the consulships of the Metelli had 
fallen to them by luck, and not by merit ; with a possible further 
meaning of ' to our misfortune.' 


' Antiquum Naevii est : 

Fato Metelli Romae consules fiuiit. 

Cui tune, Metellus consul iratus versu responderat seuario 
hypercatalecto, qui et Saturnius dicitur : 

Dabvint malum Metelli Naevio poetae.' 

[PSEUDASCON. in Cic. Verr. Act. i. 10.] 

There is a particular force in the word malum, which has a 
special reference to a flogging, such as might be administered to 
slaves. Cp. PLAUT. Eudens, 4. 4. 81 ; TERENT. Adelph. 4. 45 ; LIVY, 
4. 49, 50. 



ACCORDING to Aul. Gellius (3. 3.), the ' Ariolus ' and ' Leo ' were 
the titles of two plays written by Naevius while in the prison, to 
which he had been brought by his superbia Campana. He is said 
by means of these plays to have made the amende honorable to the 
powerful personages whom he had offended ; and so ' a tribunis plebis 
exemptus est.' But if the first fragment has any meaning to us, 
it would seem that the ' hungry lion, in whose jaws you would 
put the curb at your peril,' was none other than Naevius himself, 
in anything but a submissive mood. The second fragment con- 
tains a joke at the favourite viands of some of the Italian towns 
a stew of the inside of a sow after farrowing, for the Lanuvini ; 
and ' Praenestinae nuces' (Cato, It. R. 8), for the guests from 


Deprandi item leoni si obdas oreas. 

[FESTUS, 182 M, orcae, freni quod ori inferuntur.] 



' Quis heri apud te ? ' ' Praenesti'ni et Lanuvini hospites.' 
' suopte utrosque decuit acceptos cibo ; 
altri's inanem viilvulam madidam dari, 
altris nuces in proclivi profiindier. ' 


IN the prologue to the Eunuchus, Terence alludes to the Colax 
of Naevius and of Plautus, as introducing the characters of the 
parasite and the swashbuckler. But Menander was the original 
inventor of these characters ; and it is from Menander, and not 
from his own Latin predecessors, that Terence has borrowed them, 
as he warmly insists. 

We have here the parasite and the swashbuckler on the stage 
together. The soldier in his conceit claims to be Hercules, and 
demands his usual tithe : the parasite jokingly retorts that he has 
practically given it already, as he has appropriated to his own use 
the dainties provided for someone else's table ; and this may be 
looked upon as the public feast which was regularly offered to 
Hercules as his tithe. 

Qui decumas partis? quantum mi alieni fuit 
polluxi tibi iam publicando epulo Herculis 


[PRISCIAN, s. r. pollucere.] 


IN the play of the ' Girl of Tarentum ' we have a prologue, the 
single remnant of which is thus interpreted by Mommsen (H. R., 
B. 3, cap. 14) : ' the position of the poet under the sceptre of the 
Lagidae and Seleucidae is enviable as compared with his position in 
free Rome ' (I). The plot describes the adventures of two young 
men who are paying a visit to Tarentum, where they are feasting 
(II), and flirting, with at least one very facile damsel (III). 
Suddenly their fathers appear on the scene (IV). The young men 
pay them the best 'welcome they can (V) ; but they meet with a 
rude rebuff (VI), and a stern lecture ; after which they are straight- 
way sent home (VII). 



Quae ego in theatre mei's probavi plaiisibus 
ea non audere quemquam regem nimpere ! 
quanto libertatem hanc hie superat servitus. 

[CHAKIS. 2. p. iga-P, s. v. quanto.] 


Uterubi cenaturi estis ? hicine an in triclinio ? 

[CHAKIS. 2. p. 198 P, s. v. utrubi.] 


Quasi in choro ludens datatim dat se et communem facit. 
alii adnutat, alii adnictat, alium amat, alium tenet. 
alibi manus est occupata, alii percellit pedem, 
annulum dat alii spectandum, a labris alium iiivocat, 
cum alio cantat, at tamen alii suo dat digito litteras. 

[IsiDOR. Orig. i. 25, Ennio locum adscribens.] 


. . . ubi isti duo adulescentes habent, 

qui hie anteparta patria peregre prodigunt ? 

[CHARIS. 2. p. 189 P, s. v. peregre.] 


Salvi et fortunati sitis duo duum nostrum patres ! 

[CHAKIS. i. p. 102 P, s. t;. duum.] 


Ei ei ! etiam audent me coram apparere . . . ? 

[CHAKIS. 2. p. 213 P, *. c. ei, ei.] 



Pri'mum ad virtutem ut redeatis> abeatis ab ignavia, 
domi patres patriam Tit colatis potius quam peregri 


[CHABIS. ut sup. IV.] 


IT is not easy to understand the picture here given, but it would 
seem that Theodotus, who is engaged on some trumpery decoration 
for the altars at the Compitalia a sketch of the Lares dancing, 
roughly washed in with a ' bull's-tail ' for a brush is so pro- 
foundly impressed with the importance of his work that he shuts 
himself up in his studio, and keeps out the prying public by a 
screen of mats. If we read ' compellas ' with MSS., it may mean 
'you are rebuking'; if, with Ribbeck, ' compiles,' we may render 
' you can rob ' : the painter being so absorbed in his work. 

Theodotum compellas qui aris Compitalibus 
sedens in cella ci'rcumtectus tegetibus 
Lares ludentes peni pinxit bubulo. 

[FESTUS, p. 230 M, penem = caudam.] 


SEE Aul. Gell. 7. 8. 5 : ' Scipionem istum, verone an falso in- 
certum, fama tamen, cum esset adulescens, haud sincera fuisse, et 
propemodum constitisse hosce versus, a Cn. Naevio poeta in eum 
scriptos esse.' 

Etiam qui res magnas manu saepe gessit gloriose, 
cuius facta viva nunc vigent, qui apud gentes solus 

eum suus pater cum pallio uno ab arnica abduxit. 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 



See Fronto (Epist. 2. 10. p. 33) : 'Haec enim olim incommoda 
[sc. subsentatoruin doli] regibus solis fieri solebant ; at enim nunc 
adfatim sunt qui et 

regum filiis 
linguis faveant atque adnutent, haut animis subserviant. ' 


Libera lingua loquemur ludis Liberalibus. 

[FESTUS, s. v. Liberalia = Liberi festa.] 


Perhaps this fragment gives a description of the actual prison 
into which Naevius was thrown ; but it is more likely the picture 
of an ergastulum. 

Tantum ibi molae. crepitiim faciebant, tintinnabant com- 


[PAULUS, s. v. tintinnire, -are.] 



(The invocation.) 

Novera lovis Concordes filiae sorores, 

Musas 1 quos memorant Grai quasque nos Casmenas. 

1 This line has also been referred to Ennius, in the hexametrical 
form, ' Musas quas Grai memorant, nos Casmenarum. . . .' 


(Anchises learns from the, auspice* the impending fate of Troy.} 
Postquam aves aspexit in templo Anchisa 
sacra in mensa Penatium ordine ponuntur. 
turn victimam immolabat aureani pulchram. 

[PROB. Ad Verg. Ed. 6. 31.] 

(Aeneas and Ancliises leave Troy with their icices,~) 

amborum uxores 

noctu Troiad exibant capitibus opertis, 
flentes ambae abeuntes lacrimis cum miiltis. 

[SERVIUS DAN. Ad Verg. Aen. 3. lo.J 

eorum sectam sequiintur multi mortales. 

[Id. Ad Verg. Aen. 2. 797.] 

(carrying treasures from the city. Cp. Aen. 2. 763 foil.} 

Feriint pulchras creterras l aiireas lepistas 2 ; 

[CAES. BASS., &c.] 

pulchraque ex aiiro texta vestemque citrosam 3 . 

[MACROB. Sat. 3. 19. 5.] 

(Before sailing Anchises addresses the God of the Sea.") 

Senex fretus pietatei tum adlocutus summi 
deiim regis fratrem Neptunum regnatorem. 

marum 4 . 

[PRisc. 770, s.v. marum.] 

(Venus appeals to Tupiter on behalf of the storm-tost Trojans.) 

Patrem suiim supremum optumum adpellat : 
summe deum regnator, quianam me genuisti ? 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 51 ; FEST. 257.] 

1 creterras = crateras. 

* lepistas (\eTiaaTai) 'goblets.' 

3 citrosam, ace. to Macrob. 1. c. = the Homeric 6vu>8ea ei'/xara. 

* marum = marium, Prise. 770. 


( Visit to the Sibyl, and (possibly) description of the Cumaean Temple.) 
Inerant signa expressa, quomodo Titanes 
bicorpores Gigantes magnique Atlantes, 
Runcus atque Porporeus filii Terras 1 

[PRISC. 679, s. r. Terras.] 


(Aeneas is questioned by Dido, or (more likely) by Latinus, about his 
departure from Troy.*) 

Blande et docte perconctat Aenea quo pacto 

Troiani urbeni liquisset. 

[NONIUS, s. i'. perconcta.] 

(Amulius discovers the parentage of the rescued twins.) 
Manusque siisum ad caelum siistulit suas rex 
Amulius divisque gratulabatur. 

[Noxius, s. v. gratulari = gratias agere.] 

(Appearance of gods, perhaps to protect the Capitol.} 
^ ^ prima incedit Cereris puer 2 Proserpna. 

[PRISC. 697, s. v. puer.] 

deinde pollens sagittis inclutus arquitenens. 
sanctiis Delphi's prognatus Pythius Apollo. 

[MACKOB. Sat. 6. 5. 8 ; cp. VERG. Aen. 3. 75.] 


(Sacred ceremonies of the Fetials in proclaiming war.) 
Scopas atque verbenas 3 sagmina sumpserunt. 

[PAUL. 320, s. v. sagmina.] 

1 Terras, gen. * puer, fern. 

3 verbenas, prob. genitive with sagmina, or amis. pi. in appos. with 
scopas = ' twigs. ' 


Simul atrocia proi'cerent exta ministratores. 

[NONIUS, s. v. atrox.] 

(Exploits of the Consul Marcus (al. Manias) Valerius in Sicily, 
B.C. 263.) 

Marcus Valerius consul 
partem exerciti 1 in expeditionem 


[CHARIS. 103, s. v. exerciti.] 


(Formation of Roman fleet and naval drill.} 

Eatem aeratam conferre qui queant perite 
per liquidum mare sedentes atque soedantes 2 . 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 23.] 

(Exploits of Atilius Eegulas in Malta, B.C. 257.) 

transit Melitam 

exercitus Komanus, insulam integram 
urit populatur vastat, rem hostium concinnat 3 . 

[NONIUS, s. v. concinnare.] 

(The next pat-sages may refer to the disastrous defeat of llegulus near 
Clypea (B. c. 255), and the discussions in the Senate upon the relief 
of the (jarrison or the ransom of the prisoners. Others find in them 
an allusion to Atilius Calatinus, entrapped with his army into an 
ambush near Cttmarina, from which he was delivered by the gallantry 
of the tribune Calpurnius Flamma, B. C. 258.) 

Seseque vei * perire mavolunt ibidem 

1 exerciti, gen. as from the declension. 

2 soedantes = sudantes (the passage is almost hopelessly corrupt). 

3 concinnatj a sort of grim irony = ' arranges the foemen's affairs ' ; 
or, perhaps, ' secures the foemen's property.' 

* rei = vi, Bahrens, for ei or i. 


quam cum stupro * redire ad suos populares. 

Sin illos deserant fortissimos virorum, 
magnum stuprum populo fieri per gentis. 

[FEST. 317, s. v. stuprum.] 


(Vahlen suggests that thefoUoiriny icords may refer to the contemptuous 
action of Publius Claudius icho, to defy the senate, named his own 
clerk Claudius Q-licia as dictator. Glicia, though his appointment 
was immediately cancelled, appeared at the Great Games in his 

dictator ubi currum insedit 

pervehitur usque ad oppidum' 2 . 

[VARRO, L. L. 5. 153.] 


(Commemorates the seventeenth year of the War, sc. 248 B.C. The 
Romans are supposed to be icearied by its length.) 

lam septimum decimum annum ilico 3 sedentes 

[NONIUS, s.v. ilico.] 

(Aurelius Cotta and P. Servilius Geminus, the consuls, carry on tear in 

Censet eo venturum obviam Poenum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. censere.] 


(Hanno's fleet having been (B.C. 241) crushed near Lilybaeum, Hamilcar 
males terms tcith C. Lutatim Catulus.~) 

1 shipro= 'dishonour,' Fest. 317. 

2 oiyndum. ' In circo unde mittuntur equi, mine dicuntur car- 
ceres, Naevius oppidum appellat.' Varro, L. L. 5. 153. 

3 Him ' in eo loco,' Non. 325. 5. 


Id quoque paciscunt moenia 1 ut sint quae concilient 
Lutatium : captives plurimos idem 
Sicilienses paciscit obsides ut reddant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. paciscunt.] 

1 moenia, perhaps = munia, 'duties,' i.e. 'terms' or 'conditions.' 
If moenia be taken in its ordinary sense, we must with Bahrens 
suppose a lacuna. 




Invocation of the Greek Muses. 

Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis Olympum. 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 20.] 

(The poem begins with the fall of Troy,} 

Cum veter occubuit Priamus sub Marte Pelasgo. 

[PRISC. 607. s. v. veter.] 

(and the landing of Aeneas in Italy .-) 

Est locus Hesperiani quam mortales perhibebant : 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. n.] 
quarn prisci casci populi tenuere Latini. 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 28.] 

(The prophetic dream of Ilia the Vestal, daughter of Aeneas.*) 
Excita cum tremulis anus attulit artubus lumen, 
talia commemorat lacrimans, exterrita somno : 
'Euridica prognata, pater quam noster amavit, 
vires .vitaque corpus meum mine deserit omne. 
nam me visus homo pulcher per amoena salicta 
et ripas raptare locosque novos ; ita sola 


postilla, germana soror, errare videbar 
tardaque vestigare et quaerere te, neque posse 
corde capessere, semita nulla pedem stabilibat, 
Exin compellare pater me voce videtur 
his verbis : ' o gnata, tibi sunt ante ferendae 
aerumnae, post ex fluvio fortuna resistet V 
haec ecfatus pater, germana, repente recessit 
nee sese dedit in conspectum corde cupitus, 
quamquam multa manus ad caeli caerula templa 
tendebam lacrimans et blanda voce vocabam. 
vix aegro turn corde meo me somnus reliquit. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 20. 40.! 

(Ilia, condemned to be thrown with her twin boys into the Tiber, in- 
vokes the aid of Venus and the River-god.) 

Te venerata precor Venus tu genetrix patris nostri ; 
ut me de caelo visas rogitata parumper. 

[NONIUS, s. v. parumper.] 

tuque pater Tiberine tuo cum flumine sancto ! 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. i. 12.] 

(The Tiber stays his current, and the babes are left on dry land.) 
Postquam consistit fluvius qui est omnibus princeps 

qui sunt Italia. 

[FRONTO, Ep. ad M. Anton. : Cic. Orat. 48.] 

(Romulus and Remus, before founding their city, observe the auspices?) 
Cum cura magna curantes, turn cupientes 
regni, dant operam simul auspicio augurioque. 

Mnc Eemus auspicio se devovet, atque secundam 
solus avem servat ; at Romulus pulcher in alto 

1 resisted = restituetur. Cp. Cic. Pro Mur. 39. 84. 

Q. ENNIUS. 33 

quaerit Aventino, servat genus altivolantum : 
omnibus cura viris uter esset induperator ; 
certabant urbem Romam Eemoramne vocarent. 
exspectant veluti consul cum mittere signum 
volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras, 
quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus : 
sic exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat, 
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni. 
interea sol albus 1 recessit in infera noctis, 
exin Candida se radiis dedit icta foras lux, 
et simul ex alto longe pulcherrima praepes 
laeva volavit avis ; simul aureus exoritur sol. 
cedunt de caelo ter quatuor corpora sancta 
avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant. 
conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse priora, 
auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 48.] 

(Remus laughs at his 'brother's caution in "building a wall.') 

luppiter ut muro fretus magis quamde manus vi ! 

[FESTUS, 261, s. v. quamde.] 
(He leaps over it, and is slain by Romulus.') 
Non pol homo quisquam faciet impune animatus 2 
hoc quod tu : nam mi calido dabis sanguine poenas ! 

[MACKOB. Sat. 6. i. 15.] 

(The Rape of the Salines.} 

Virgnes 3 nam sibi quisque domi Romanus habet sas 4 . 

[FEST. 325, PAULUS 324, s. v. sas.] 

1 sol albus is generally taken of the ' moon ' : but cp. albicascit 
Phoebus (inf. Matii Mimiambi, page i, 181). 

z animatus = anima praeditus. 

3 virgnes : so Miiller for virgines, comparing the form Proserpna 
(Naev. Bell. Pun. lib. 2). * sos=eas. 



(Reconciliation of Romulus and Titus latins, perhaps l>y the pleading 
of Ilersilia (Liv. I. n.) who says :) 

Aeternam seritote diem concorditer ambo. 

[CHARIS. 177.] 

Accipe daque fidem foedusque feri bene firmum. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 13.] 

( Titus Tatius was slain by some Laurentines, one of whom may have 
complained of his arrogance.') 

O Tite tute Tati tibi tanta, tyranne, tulisti ! 

[PRISC. 947, s. v. tute.] 

(The Assumption of Romulus.} 
Eomulus in caelo cum dis genitalibus aevum 


[SERV. in Verg. Aen. 6. 764.] 


(The Lament for Romulus.} 

Pectora fida tenet desiderium : simul inter 
sese sic memorant, ' o Komule, Eomule die, 
qualem te patriae custodem di genuerunt ! 
o pater, o genitor, o sanguen dis oriundum, 
tu produxisti nos intra luminis oras.' 

[Cic. De Rep. i. 41.] 

(Accession of Numa ; his meetings with the nymph.} 

Olli respondit suavis sonus Egeriai. 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 42.] 

( War between Rome and Alba : the victory to be decided by the combat 
of Horatii and Citriatii.') 

quianam legiones caedimus ferro? 

[SERV. in Verg. Aen. 10. 6.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 35 

(The victorious Horatius excuses himself to his sister for the slaughter 
of her betrothed.) 

Adnuit sese mecum decernere ferro. 

[PRISC. 882, s. r. adnuo.] 

(Treachery of Mettus Fuffetius, the Alban general, and his punishment 
ly Tullus.) 

tractatus per aequora campi. 

[MACKOB. De Verb. 4. 651.] 

(His body is devoured by birds of prey.) 
Vulturus in spinis <niserum mandebat homonem. 
heu, quam crudeli condebat membra sepulcro ! 

[PRisc. 683, s. v. vulturus.] 

(Accession of Ancus Marcius,) 

Isque dies postquam Ancus Marcius regna recepit. 

[SERV. ad Verg. Am. 3. 333.] 

(who founds the Port of Ostia.) 

. . . ut Tiberis flumen vomit in mare salsum, 
Ostia munita est. idem loca navibus celsis 
munda 1 facit, nautisque mari quaesentibus vitam. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. 4. 3 : FEST. 258.] 


(Descent of the eagle on Tarquin. [Liv. i. 34.]) 

Olim de caelo laevuni dedit inclutus signum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. laevum.] 

et densis aquila pennis obnixa volabat 


[PROBUS in Verg. Ed. 6. 31.] 

1 munda, i. e. instructa. 
1) 2 


(After the death of A ncus the people made Tarquin king.') 
Postquam lumina sis 1 oculis bonus Ancus reliquit, 
Tarquinio dedit imperium simul et sola regni. 

[FESTUS, 301, s. v. sis.] 

( Wars of Tarquin, and critical position of Etruria, perhaps before the 
battle of Eretum [Dion. 3. 59 ; 4. 3].) 

Hac noctu filo pendebit Etruria tota. 

[MACROB. Sat. i. 4. 18.] 

(The remaining fragments may refer to the outrage on Lucretia, her 
appeal to heaven, and her suicide.} 

Caelum suspexit stellis fulgentibus aptum. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. r. 9.] 

Vosque Lares tectum nornen qui funditus curant. 

[CHARIS. 238, 9.] 

Inde sibi memorat unum superesse laborem. 

[AuL. GELL. i. 22. 16.] 


(Storming of Anxur [Livy 4. 59].) 
. . . Vosculus perdidit Anxur. 

[PATJLUS, 22.] 

Romani scalis summa nituntur opum vi. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 17 ; VERG. Aen. 12. 552.] 

(Attack on the Capitol by the Gauls [others refer this to Book vii].) 
Qua Galli furtim noctu summa arcis adorti 
moenia, concubia, vigilesque repente cruentant 

[MACROB. Sat. i. 4 17.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 37 


Period of the Samnite Wars. 
(Civitas sine suffragio [Livy 8. 14] given to the Campani.) 

Gives Eomani tune facti sunt Campani. 

[CENSORIN. De Melr. 2725.] 

(Minucia the Vestal [Livy 8. 15] buried alive for unchastity.') 

Cum nihil horridius unquam lex ulla iuberet. 

[OEOS. 3. 9. 5.] 

(Fierce contests between Romans and Samnites [Livy 7. 33].) 

Bellum aequis manibus nox intempesta diremit. 

[AcKO ad Hor. Ep. 2. 2. 97.] 


( War with, Pyrrhus : importance of subject.') 

Quis potis ingentes oras evolvere belli? 

[SERV. in Verg. Aen. g. 528.] 

(The Tarentines defy Home, and find a champion in Pyrrhus,~) 
Navus repertiis homo Graio patre Graius domo rex, 
nomine Burrus, uti memorant de stirpe supremo. 

[FEST. 169 : NONIUS, s. v. stirpe, wzosc.] 

(who undertakes the war, encouraged by an ambiguous oracled) 

Aio te Aeacida Komanos vincere posse. 

[Cic. De Div. 2. 56. 116.] 

(The Eomans enlist the lowest of their citizens.') 
Proletarius publicitus scutisque feroque 
ornatur ferro, muros urbemque forumque 

excubiis curant. 

[AuL. GELL. 16. 10.] 


(After the 'battle of Heradea, Pyrrhus generously builds a pyre to 
burn the bodies of the fallen foe, as well as those of his own soldiers.} 

Incedunt arbusta per alta, securibus caedunt : 
percellunt magnas quercus, exciditur ilex, 
fraxinus frangitur atque abies consternitur alta, 
pinus proceras pervortunt : omne sonabat 
arbustum fremitu silvai frondosai. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 2. 27 ; HOM. II. 23. 114.] 
(But, in spite of his elephants,) 

tetros elephantos, 

[IsiDOR. Or. 10. 270.] 

It nigrum campis agmen. 

[SERV. in Verg. Aen. 4. 404.] 

(he fought with doubtful success, as he acknowledged by his inscription 
in the Temple of Tarentine Jove.} 

Qui antehac invicti fuerunt, pater optime Olympi, 
Hos et ego in pugna vici, victusque sum ab isdem. 

[OROS. 4. i. 14.] 

( When Fabricius proposes to ransom the prisoners, Pyrrhus sends them 
back to Rome, as a free gift.} 

Nee mi aurum posco nee mi pretium dederitis : 
nee cauponantes bellum sed belligerantes 
ferro, non auro, vitam cernamus utrique. 
vosne velit an me regnare era quidve ferat Fors 
virtute experiamur. et hoc simul accipe dictum : 
quorum virtuti belli fortuna pepercit 
eorundem libertati me parcere certumst. 
dono ducite doque volentibus cum magnis dis. 

[Cic. De Off. i. 12. 38.] 

(Cineas is sent by Pyrrhus to Home to negotiate a peace. The blind 
old Appius fiercely protests.} 

Quo vobis mentes, rectae quae stare solebant 

Q. ENNIUS. 39 

antehac, dementes sese flexere viai? 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. 6. 16.] 

Orator sine pace redit regique refert rem. 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 41.] 

(To this book belongs the Devotion of the youngest Decius, in the battle 
at Asculum [Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 37].) 

. . . divi hoc audite parumper, 
ut pro Romano populo praegnaviter armis 
certando prudens animam de corpore mitto. 

[NONIUS, s. v. praegnaviter.] 

{Battle of Beneventum, 274 B.C., and victory of the famous consul, M'. 
Curius [Cic. De Rep. 3. 3].) 

Quern nemo ferro potuit superare nee auro. 

[Cic. I. c.] 


(First Punic War. The subject had been already treated of by Naevius : 
but his rude ' Saturnians ' are uncultured in comparison with the 
Greek metre of Ennim.'] 

scripsere alii rem 

versibus, quos olim Fauni vatesque canebant, 
cum neque Musarum scopulos quisquam superarat, 

nee dicti studiosus erat. 

[Cic. Bmt. 19. 76 ; 18. 71, etc.] 

(Ennius was the first to attain to real philosophy.} 
Nec quisquam Sophiam, sapientia quae perhibetur, 
in somnis vidit prius quam sam dicere coepit. 

[FEST. 325, s. v. sam = earn.] 

(He introduces the Carthaginians, a barbarous folk, ~) 

Poenos Didone oriundos. 

[PRISC. 685.] 


Poeni suos soliti dis sacrificare puellos. 

[FEST. 249, etc.] 

(against ichom Rome declares war.} 

Appius indixit Karthageniensibus bellum. 

[Cic. De Inv. i. 19. 27.] 

(A stranded Carthaginian galley becomes a model for ihe hastily built 
Roman fleet.} 

Mulserat hue navim compulsam fluctibus pontus. 

[PRISC. 870, s. v. mulgeo.] 

et melior navis quam quae stlataria portat. 

[PROB. ap. Vallam in luv. Sat. 7. 134.] 

(The Roman legionaries are put to naval drill.} 
. . . tonsamque tenentes 
parerent, observarent portisculus signum 

cum dare coepisset. 

[NONIUS, s. v. portisculus.] 

poste recumbite, vestraque pectora pellite tonsis. 

[FEST. 356, s. v. tonsa.] 

(The temple of Janus, ichich was closed in B. c. 235 for the second time 
since its foundation, was soon opened anew, when a quarrel broke 
out between Some and the Ligurians.} 

postquam Discordia tetra 
Belli ferrates postes portasque refregit. 

[HoR. Sat. i. 4. 60.] 

(War with Illyria, and triumph of M. Livius B.C. 219.) 

Illyrii restant sicis sibunisque fodentes. 

[PAULXJS, 336, s. v. sibuna.] 

Livius inde redit magno mactatus triumpho. 

[SERV. in Verg. Aen. 9. 641.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 41 


(Second Punic War to battle of Cannae. Formidable character of 

... at non sic dirus fuit hostis 

Aeacida Burrus. 

[Ones. 4. 14. 3.] 
(State of Society in time of war.) 

... si sunt proelia promulgata, 
pellitur e medio sapientia, vi geritur res, 
spernitur orator bonus, horridus miles amatur : 
haud doctis dictis certantes, sed maledictis 
miscent inter sese inimicitiam agitantes. 
non ex iure manum consertum, sed magis ferro 
rem repetunt, regnumque petunt, vadunt solida vi. 

[Cic. Pro Mur. 14. 30 ; ATJL. GELL. 20. 10.] 

(Q. Fabius Maximus appointed dictator B.C. 217.) 
Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem ; 
noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem ; 
ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret. 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. 4. 10.] 

(Cautious advice of L. Aemilius Paulus against the rashness of C. 
Terentius Varro, his colleague.) 

praecoca pugnast : 
certare abnueo : metuo legionibus labem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. praecoca.] 

. . . multa dies in bello conficit unus : 

et multae rursus fortunae forte recumbunt ; 

haudquaquam quemquam semper fortuna secutast. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. 2. 16.] 

(Description of the confidential friend of Servilius Geminm. Under 
this character, Ennius was taid (teste Aelio Stilone apud Aul. Gell. 
12. 4) to have portrayed himself.) 

Haece locutus vocat, quo cum bene saepe libenter 


mensam sermonesque suos rerumque suarum 

materiem partit, magnam cum lassus diei 

partem fuisset de summis rebus regundis 

consilio indu foro lato sanctoque senatu ; 

cui res audacter magnas parvasque iocumque 

eloqueretur, cuncta simul malaque et bona dictu 

evomeret, si qui vellet, tutoque locaret, 

prudenter quod dicta loquive tacereve posset ; 

quo cum multa volup ac gaudia clamque palamque ; 

ingenium cui nulla malum sententia suadet 

ut faceret facinus levis aut malus ; doctus, fidelis, 

suavis homo, facundus, suo contentus, beatus, 

scitus, secunda loquens in tempore, commodus verbum 

paucum, multa tenens antiqua sepulta, vetustas 

maiorum veterum leges divomque hominumque, 

quae faciunt mores veteresque novosque tenentem. 

hunc inter pugnas compellat Servilius sic : 

[AuL. GELL. 12. 4. i.] 

(Some details from the battle of Cannae, e.g. the thick dust, the blind- 
ing sun, the hamstringing of the wounded [Liv. 22. 46 f.].) 

iamque fere pulvis ad caelum vasta vegetur. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pulvis, /em.] 

amplius exaugere obstipo lumine solis. 

[FEST. 193, s. v. obstipum.] 

his pernas succidit iniqua superbia Poeni. 

[FEST. 305, PAUL. 304.] 

(But the Romans obstinately hold out, saying,} 

Qui vicit non est victor nisi victus fatetur. 

[SERV. in Ve>g. Aen. n. 307.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 43 


(Consulship of Cornelius Cethegus and P. Semp. Tuditanus B. c. 204.) 

Additur orator Cornelius suaviloquenti 

ore Cetegus Marcus Tuditano conlega 

Marci filius . . . 

... is dictust ollis popularibus olim, 

qui turn vivebant homines atque aevom agitabant, 

flos delibatus populi suadaeque medulla. 

[Cic. Brut. 15. 58, &c.] 


(Macedonian War to the battle of Cynoscephalae.) 
Insece, Musa, manu Romanorum induperator 
quod quisque in bello gessit cum rege Philippo. 

[Aux. QELL. 18. 9. 2.] 

(Consulship of Sext. Aelius Paetus and T. Quintius Flamininu*, 
B.C. 198.) 

Egregie cordatus homo catus Aelius Sextus. 

[Cic. De Rep. r. 18. 30 ; De Or. i. 45. 198.] 

(The Roman army, entrapped in a defile in Chaonia, is guided into 
safety by an Epirot shepherd, who thus addresses Flamininus :) 

Sollicitari te, Tite, sic noctesque diesque ! 

O Tite, si quid ego adiuro curamve levasso, 
quae hunc te coquit et versat in pectore fixa, 

ecquid erit praemi? 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. init.] 

(The general watches his troops during the fight at Cynoscephalae.} 
Aspectabat virtutem legionis suai, 
exspectans si mussaret, quae denique pausa 
pugnandi fieret aut duri meta laboris. 

[PHILARGYR. in Verg. Georg. 4. i88.J 


(The remaining fragments of the look perhaps refer to a scene between 
Sophonisba and Masinissa.} 

Erubuit mulier ceu lacte et purpura mixta. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lacte.] 

corde, comis palmis late passis 'pater' . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. passum.] 


(The exploits of Flamininus, and the submission of the haughty 

Quippe solent reges onmes in rebus secundis 

[FEST. 257.] 

(Flamininus [Livy 33. 32] proclaims at the Isthmian games the liberty 
of the Greek cities ; and dwells upon the connection of Rome with 
Troy .-) 

Contendunt Graios, Graecos memorare solent sos. 

[FEST. 286, s. v. sos.] 

Quae neque Dardaniis campis potuere perire, 
nee cum capta capi, nee cum combusta cremari. 

[MACBOB. Sat. 6. i. 60.] 

(The scene changes to Borne, and the violent protest of Cato against the 
abrogation of Lex Oppia de cultu mulierum [Livy 34 ad init.].) 

malo cruce fatur uti des 

luppiter ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. crux, 

Pendent peniculamenta unum ad quodque pedule. 

[NONIUS, s. v. peniculamentum.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 45 


(Perhaps alluding to the carousal of the Histri, after they had taken 
the Eoman camp [Livy 41. 3].) 

Omnes mortales victores cordibus imis 
laetantes, vino curatos, somnus repente 
in campo passim mollissimus perculit acris. 

[PKISC. 647, s. v. acer et acris.] 


(The fear of the impending war with Antiochus, who appeared to be 
[Floras i. 24. 43] a second Xerxes or Darius.} 

Isque Hellesponto pontem contendit in alto. 

[VARKO, L. L. 7. 21.] 

(Difference of opinion between Antiochus and Hannibal, who had ori- 
ginally urged the Tcing to war.) 

Hannibal audaci cum pectore de me horitatur 

ne bellum faciam ? quern credidit esse meum cor * 

suasorem summum et studiosum robore belli. 

[AuL. GELL. 6, 2. 3.] 


(Battle of Myonnesus, in which M. Aemiltus Regillus, B.C. 190, con- 
quers Polyxenides, the commander of the fleet of Antiochus [Liv. 37. 
28, etc.].) 

Verrunt extemplo placidum mare marmore flavo, 
caeruleum spumat sale conferta rate pulsum. 

[AuL. GELL. 2. 26. 31.] 

Labitur uncta carina ; volat super impetus undas. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 51.] 

Cum procul aspiciunt hostes accedere ventis 

navibus velivolis. 

[Ib. 6. 5. 10.] 


(Exhortation of Antiochus to his soldiers.} 

Nunc est ille dies cum gloria maxima sese 
nobis ostentat, si vivimus sive morimur. 

[Pmsc. 880, s. v. moriri.] 

(His dismay at being defeated.') 

Infit 'o cives, quae me fortuna ferocem 
contudit indigne, bello confecit acerbo ! ' 

[PKISC. 891, s. v. contudit.] 


(Exploits of M. Fulvius NoMlior, who defeated the Aetolians, and 
stormed Ambracia.} 

Malos diffindunt, fiunt tabulata falaeque. 

[NONIUS, s. v. falae.] 

Occumbunt multi letum fer *oque lapique 
aut intra muros aut extra praecipe casu. 

[PRISC. 725, s. v. praecipis.] 


(The poet approaches more recent times;} 

Quippe vetusta virum non est satis bella moveri. 

[FEST. 257.] 
(Philip has grown too old to renew the war.} 

. . . post aetate pigret sufferre laborem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pigret.] 

Postremo longinqua dies confecerat aetas. 

[AuL. GELL. 9. 14. 5.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 47 

(He dies, and receives a splendid burial.') 

Keges per regnum statuasque sepulcraque quaerunt, 
ludificant nummum, summa nituntur opum vi. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. i. 17.] 

(Histrian War carried on by C. Claudius Pulcher against King Epulo, 
and taking of Nesactium [Livy 41. 1 1].) 

Quos ubi rex Epulo spexit de cotibus celsis. 

[FEST. 330, s. v. spexit.j 

(Fight of the tribune Caelius, or, more likely, C. Aelius, Livy 41. 4.) 

Undique conveniunt velut imber tela tribune : 
configunt parmam, tinnit hastilibus umbo, 
aerato sonitu galeae. Sed nee pote quisquam 
undique nitendo corpus discerpere ferro : 
semper adundantes hastas frangitque quatitque. 
totum sudor habet corpus multumque laborat, 
nee respirandi fit copia praepete ferro : 
Histri tela manu iacientes sollicitabant. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. 3. 2 : cp. HOM. II. 16. 102 foil.] 


(Perhaps a reference to the exploits of Fulvitis Flaccus in Celtiberia.) 

It eques, et plausu cava concutit ungula terrain. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 22.] 

Concurrunt veluti venti, cum spiritus austri 
imbricitor aquiloque suo cum flamine contra 
indu mari maguo fluctus extollere certant. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 2. 28.] 



(To this book may "be referred these, general and personal sayings.} 
Audire est operae pretium procedere recte 
qui rem Komanam Latiumque augescere vultis. 

[PoRPHYK. ad Hor. Sat. i. 2. 37.] 

Noenu decet mussare bonos qui facta labore 
nixi militiae peperere perennia multo. 

[PHILAKG. in Verg. Georg. 4. 188.] 

(The poet recalls the fact of his own citizenship, and weary with his 
task is glad to seek repose.) 

Nos sumus Eomani qui fuimus ante Kudini. 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 42.] 

Sicut fortis equus, spatio qui saepe supremo 
vicit Olympia, nunc senio confectus quiescit. 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. 5. 14.] 



ALCMAEON, after murdering his mother Eriphyle, for her treachery 
to her husband Amphiaraus, is pursued from land to land by the 
Furies, till he reaches the city of Psophis in Arcadia, where he 
finds purification at the hands of Phegeus the king. He marries 
the king's daughter Arsinoe ; and here he is represented as appeal- 
ing to her in his terror at the avenging deities (I, II). 

Q. ENNIUS. . 49 

Multimedia sum circumventus morbo exilio atque inopia ; 
turn pavor sapientiam omnem mi exanimate expectorat, 
tetrum terribilem minatur vitae cruciatum et necem, 
quae nemost tarn firmo ingenio et tanta confidentia 
quin refugiat timido sanguen atque exalbescat metu. 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 58.] 


Unde haec flamma oritur? 

in caedem meam, in caedem adsunt, adsunt, me ex- 

petunt ! 

fer mi auxilium, pestem abige a me, 
flammi'feram hanc vim, quae me excruciat. 
caerulea incinctae angui incedunt 
circumstant cum ardentibus taedis. 
in me intendit crinitus Apollo 
arcum aiiratum, luna innixus, 

Diana facem iacit a laeva. 

[Cic. Acod. Pr. 2. 28.] 


HECTTBA, wife of Priam, having dreamed that she had brought 
forth a firebrand, her husband ordered that the son she bore 
should be put to death. But the servants spared his life, and 
certain shepherds having found him when he was exposed, he was 
rescued, and brought up under the name of Paris (I x ; ; which was 
afterwards changed to Alexander, because of his prowess in the 
games (II, III). He is received into the king's palace, and 
Cassandra, terrified at the sight of him, prophesies the downfall 
of Troy (IV). She foretells the fatal 'ludicium Paridis' (V) ; 
the death of Hector (VI) ; and the stratagem of the ' Wooden 
Horse' (VII). 



. . . mater gravida parere se ardentem facem 

visast in somnis Hecuba : quo fato pater 

rex ipse Priamus somnio mentis metu 

perculsus, curis saucius superantibus, 

sic sacrificabat hostiis balantibus. 

turn coniecturam postulat, pacem petens, 

ut se edoceret obsecrans Apollinem, 

quo sese vertant tantae sortes somnium. 

ibi ex oraclo voce divina edidit 

Apollo, puerum primus Priamo qui foret 

post ilia natus, temperaret tollere l : 

eum esse exitium Troiae, pestem Pergamo, 

[Cic. De Div. i. 21. 42.] 


Is habet coronam vitulans victoria. 

[PAtTLus, s. v. vitulans.] 


Quapropter Pari'm pastores mine Alexandrum vocant. 

[VAKRO, L. L. 7. 82.] 

HEC. Sed quid oculis rabefe visa es derepente arden- 

tibus ? 
ubi ilia tua paulo ante sapiens virginalis modestia? 

CASS. Mater, optumarum multomeliormuliermulierum, 
maesta sum superstitiosis ariolationibus. 
namque Apollo fatis 2 fandis dementem invitam ciet. 
virgines aequales vereor : patris mei meurn 3 factum pudet, 

1 tottere. ' to acknowledge.' 

2 fatis, dative. 

s meum, gen. plur. 

Q. ENNIUS. 51 

optumi viri '. mea mater, tui me miseret, mei piget. 
optumam progeniem Priamo peperisti extra me. hoc 

dolet ! 

men obesse, illos prodesse, me obstare, illos obsequi ! 
adest adest fax obvoluta sanguine atque incendio. 
miiltos annos latuit : cives, ferte opem et restinguite. 
iamque mari magno classis cita 
t&dtur, exitium examen rapit : 
adveniet, fera velivolantibus 
uavibus complebft manus litora. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 31.] 


eheu ! videte 

iudicabit mclutum iudicium inter deas tris aliquis : 
quo iudicio Lacedaemonia mulier, Furiarum una, ad- 

[Cic. De Div. i. 50.] 

liix Troiae, germane Hector ! 

quid ita . . . cum tuo lacerato corpore, 

miser, aiit qui te sic tractavere nobis respectantibus ? 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 2. 18.] 

Nam maximo saltil superabit gravidus arniatis equus, 
sud qui partu . . . p6rdat Pergania drdua. 

[MACKOB. Sat. 6. 2. 25. ] 


ANDROMACHE laments the loss of Hector and Astyanax (I) ; and 
mourns qver her city burned to the ground (II). 

1 viri, gen. sing, with patris ; or voc. plur. 



Vidi videre quod me passa aegerrume. 
Hectorem J curru quadriiugo raptarier, 
Hectoris natum de muro iactarier. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 44.] 

Quid petam praesidi aiit exsequar? quove mine 
auxilio exilf aut fugae freta sim? 
arce et lirbe orba sum. quo accidam? quo applicem? 
cuf nee arae patriae dorni stant, fractae et disiectae iacent, 
fana flamma deflagrata, tosti alti stant parietes 
deformati atque abiete crispa. 

O pater, o patria, o Priami domus, 
saeptum altisono cardine templum ! 
vidi ego te astante ope barbarica, 
tectfs caelatis lacuatis, 
auro, ebore instructam regifice. 
haec omnia videi inflammarei, 
Priamo vi vitam evitarei 2 , 

lovis aram sanguine turpari. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 3. 19.] 


CRESPHONTES, king of Messenia, espoused the cause of the people 
against the nobles, whose leader, Polyphontes, slew him, together 
with his two sons, forcibly taking to wife Merope, the widow of the 
murdered man. Merope's own father Cypselus was among the 
adherents of Polyphontes. We hear the protest of the nobles 
against the claims of the burghers (I) ; the altercation between 
Cypselus and Merope (II) ; and her grief at being debarred from 
paying funeral honours to her sons (III). 

1 Hectorem. For the quantity cp. Varro, L. L. 10. 70. 

2 evitarei, with play on vitam ; ' unlifed of his life.' 

Q. ENNIUS. 53 


An inter sese sortiunt urbem atque agros? 

[NONIUS, s. v. sortiunt.] 

1 Iniiiria abs te adficior indigna, pater. 

nani si inprobum esse Cresphontem tu existimas, 

cur me huius locabas nuptiis? sin est probus, 

cur talem invitam invitum cogis linquere ? ' 

' nulla te indigna, o nata, adficio iniuria, 

si probus est, bene locavi ; sin est inprobus, 

divortio te liberabo incommodis.' 

[Aucr. Ad Herenn. 2. 24.] 

Neque terrain inicere neque cruenta convestire corpora 

mihi licuit miserae, neque lavere lacrima salsa sanguinem. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. 2. i : cp. VERG. Aen. 9. 486.] 


THIS play includes the whole of the action in the Iliad from the 
sally of Hector to the restoration of his corpse to his father, in- 
cluding the death of Patroclus. Hector comes boldly forth from 
the walls (I), and in the battle which ensues many are wounded, 
among them Eurypylus, who comes back to Patroclus, seeking the 
aid of a physician (II). Patroclus enquires eagerly about the for- 
tune of the day (t'6.). Achilles suffers Patroclus to take his place in 
the field, and the young man commits himself to the protection of 
heaven (III). News comes of the death of Patroclus, and Achilles 
steps forth in terrible anxiety from his tent (IV). He calls on 
each of the Myrmidones to find him armour for the fray, but no one 
is willing, as he bitterly acknowledges (V). When at last he rushes 
forth to war, all nature is hushed in awful expectancy (VI), as he 
drives his fiery steeds (VII), and checks their impetuous speed 
(VIII). The special scene which gives its name to the play is not 
preserved ; we only have Priam crying on the Myrmidones for 
pity ; and urging his plea for that justice which is better than all 
gallantry (IX, X.). 



Hector vi summa armatos educit foras, 
castrisque castra iam ultro conferre occupat. 

[NONIUS, s. v. occupare.] 

EUKYP. Patricoles, ad vos adveniens auxilium et 

vestras manus 

peto, prius quam appeto malam pestem datam hostili 

neque sanguis ullo potis est pacto profluens consistere. 

si qui sapientia magi's vestra mors devitarf potest. 
namque Aesculapi liberorum saucii opplent porticus : 
non potis accedi. 

PATRIC. Certe Eurypylus hie quidem. hominem 

exercitum l ! 

EUKYP. Qui alteri exitium parat 
eum scire oportet sibi paratum pestem ut participet 

PATBIC. Eloquere, eloquere, res Argivum praelio ut 

se sustinet. 

EURYP. Non potis ecfari tantum dictis, quantum 
factis suppetit. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 16 : cp. HOM. II. n. 804 foil.] 


... at ego, omnipotens Iiippiter, 
ted exposco ut hoc consilium Achivis auxili fuat ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. fuam = sim.] 

1 exercitum, sc. mails. 

Q. ENNIUS. 55 


Quid hoc hie clamoris, quid tumulti est? nomen qui 

usurpat meum? 

[NoNius, s. v. tumulti.] 


Qui cupiant dare arma Achilli, cunctent pugnam obbftere. 

[NONIUS, s. v. cunetant.] 
Constitit, credo, Scamander, arbores vento vacant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vagas (?).] 


. . . sublfmiter 
quadrupedantes . . . flammam halitantes. 

[DIOMEDES, s. v. halitare.] 

Adducit quadrupedem invitam indomitam iniugem, 
evalida quoius tenacia infrenast nimis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. tenacia.] 

per vos et vostroriim ducum 

imperium et fidem, Myrmidonum vlgiles, commiserescite. 

[NONIUS, s. v. commiserescere.] 

Melius est virtute ius : nam saepe virtutern mali 
nanciscuntur : ius atque aequom se a malis spernit 


[NONIUS, s. v. spernere=segregare.] 


HECUBA, after the treacherous murder of her son Polydorus, 
makes a passionate appeal to heaven (I). When she hears that 


sentence has gone forth for the immolation of her daughter 
Polyxena, she entreats Ulysses to use his all-persuasive powers to 
prevent the sacrifice (II). But she feels that her supplication is 
all in vain (III). In her misery, she fain would take her own life, 
or share her daughter's death (IV, V). And, over the corpse of her 
murdered son, she beseeches Agamemnon to pity her, reminding 
him of the claim that Cassandra's surrender of herself has upon 
him (VI). 


O magna templa caelitum, commixta stellis splendidis ! 

[VARRO, L.L. 7. 6 M.] 

Haec tu etsi perverse dices, facile Achivos flexeris : 
nam opulenti cum locuntur pariter atque ignobiles, 
eadem dicta eademque oratio aequa non aeque valet. 

[AuL. GELL. n. 4.] 

[Cp. EUR. Hec. 293-295 : 

To 8" diu/J.a, KO.V KO.KUIS AS'TT;?, T& abv 
adffei' \6yos yap tK T' d8oowTwv luv 


Gellius, I. c., while generally approving of the rendering, does not 
consider ignobiles and opulenti as a satisfactory translation of the 


Heu, me miseram, interii ! pergunt lavere sanguen 


[NONIUS, s. v. sanguen.] 


. . . miserete anuis 
date ferrum qui me anima privem ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. miserete.] 


Extemplo acceptam me necato et filiam. 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 13 M.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 57 


Vide mine meae in quern lacrumae guttatim cadunt. 

[NONIUS, s. v. guttatim.] 


Quae tibi in concubio verecunde et modice morem gerit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. modice = modeste.] 
[Cp. EUR. Hec. 829 : 

*H T<OV ev tiivri <f>i\ra.Tcav dffira.fffj.aTwv 
o.w TIV' tti irais tfJO, K(ivrs 5' ew ; 


AGAMEMNON, in his tent, asks his old servant 'What of the 
night ?' (I) [Cp. Eur. I. A. 6]. Instead of the Euripidean Chorus 
of maidens we have a Chorus of Achaean soldiers, fretting at the 
long delay (II). Then follows the altercation between Agamemnon 
and Menelaus : the former condemning the flight of Helen, and 
deprecating the sacrifice of Iphigenia (III, IV). [Cp. Eur. L A. 
328 foil.]. Agamemnon, realising that the sacrifice must proceed, 
laments the hard law that forbids kings to weep (V). [Cp. Eur. /. 
A. 446.] Achilles sneers at the pretended prescience of Calchas 
(VI) [I. A. 956.] Iphigenia accepts her death, and surrenders 
herself for her country's weal (VII) [I. A. 1375 foil.]. 

AGAM. Quid noctis videtur in altisono 

caell clipeo? 
SENEX. superat temo a 

stellas cogens etiam atque etiam 

noctis sublime iter. 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 73 M.] 


Otio qui nescit uti plus negoti habet 
quam cum quis negotiosod lititur negotio. 

1 temo, sc. the constellation of the fi/aa, or septentrio. 


nam cui quod agat institutumst, nullo quasi negotio 
id agit, id studet, ibi mentem atque animum delectat 


otioso in otio animus nescit quid velit. 
hoc idem hie est : enim neque domi nunc nos nee 

militiae sumus : 

imus hue, hinc illuc : cum illuc ventumst, ire illfnc lubet : 
incerte errat animus, praeter propter vitam vivitur. 

[AuL. GELL. 19. 10. praeterpropter = ' outside.'] 

AGAM. Quis homo te exsuperavit usquam gentium 

impudentia ? 
MENEL. Quis ted autem malitia? 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 4. 36.] 
AGAM. Egone plectar, tu delinques : tu pecces, ego 

arguar ? 

pro malefactis Helena redeat, virgo pereat innocens ? 
tua reconcilietur uxor, mea necetur filia ? 

[RUFINIAN, De Fig. Sent."] 

Plebes in hoc regi antistat loco : licet 
lacrumare plebi, regi honeste non licet. 

[HIERONYM. Epitaph. Nepot.~\ 


Astrologorum signa in caelo quaesit, observat lovis 
cum capra aut nepa l aiit exoritur lumen aliquod beluae. 
quod est ante pedes noenu spectant : caeli scrutantur 


[Cic. De Rep. i. 18.] 

1 nepa, the constellation of the Scorpion. 

Q. ENNIUS. 59 


Acherontem obibo, ubi mortis thesauri obiacent, 
ut hostium eliciatur sanguis sanguine. 

[FEST. De Praep. ob. : Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 48.] 


CICERO (De Fin. i. 2. 4) quotes the Medea of Ennius as among 
those ' fabellas Latinas ad verbum e Graecis expressas.' This is 
certainly overstated. 


NUTRIX. Utinam ne in nemore Pelio seciiribus 
caesa accidisset abiegna ad terrain trabes, 
neve inde navis incohandae exordium 
coepisset, quae nunc nominatur nomine 
Argo, quia Argivi in ea delecti viri 
vecti petebant pellem inauratam arietis 
Colchis, imperio regis Peliae, per dolum. 
Nam numquam era errans mea domo ecferret pedem 
Medea, animo aegra, amore saevo saucia. 

[Cic. De Inv. i. 49, etc.] 
[Cp. EUK. Med. 1-7 : 

EiO' u<pt\' "A/xyovs I*T) SiaitraffOai ffKa<po$ 
ts alav Kvavias 'Svf,iir\TjfdSas, 
vairaiai Hrj\iov irtativ TTOT% 

dvSpwv dpiffTfcav, ol r& ird-YXP vffov 
TIf\ia n(TTJ\6oV ov fdp &v Stffiroiv' 
vvpyovs y}r tit\tva' 

fKir\ay(ia' 'Idaovos.~\ 


(The next passage does not express the meaning of the corres- 
ponding words in Euripides. There, Medea excuses herself to the 
Corinthian dames for coming forth from her house ; here Ennius 


seems to represent the Corinthians as taunting Medea with her 
exile from her country, while she defends herself.) 

Quae Corinthi arcem altam habetis, matronae opulentae 

optimates ! 

multi suam rem bene gessere et publicam patria procul, 
multi, qui domi aetatem agerent, propterea sunt m- 


[Cic. Ad Fam. 7. 6.] 
[Cp. EUK. Med. 214 foil. : 

KoptvOiai ywaitces, efj\6ov 56/j.cav, 
fri] fioi rt fifni//r]ff&'' olSa yap 7ioX\ovs Pporuv 
fff/jvovs yfyujras, rovs fj.\v b^artav atro, 
TOVS 5' ev Ovpaiois' ol 8 a<p' -fjffvxov iroSbs 
5vaK\eiav fKr-aavTO KCLI aOv^iavJ 


(From the same passage : Medea contrasts the life of a man with 
that of a wife and mother.) 

. . . nam ter sub armis malim vitam cernere 

quam semel modo parere. 

[VAKKO, L. L. 6. 81.] 
[Cp. EUR. Med. 250 foil. : 

'fls rpls av nap' aairiSa 
arrival 6(\oifj.' av fia\\ov rj rtKtiv affaf.] 


(Creon bids Medea depart, granting her a respite of one day. 
She sneers at his simplicity : this one day is enough for her 

Nequaquam istuc istac ibit : magna adest certatio. 
nam ut ego illi supplicarem tanta blandiloquentia 

[Cp. EUR. Med. 365 foil. : 

'A\X' OVTI ravrr) ravra, ^ SoKeTre irca. 
T' tier' a-yuivfs . . . 
SOKHS yap av /i rovSf Oeairtvffai TTOTt, 
t ya] rt KfpSaivovaav f) Tf\vo}^ivrfV ;] 

Q. ENNIUS. 6 1 


(From the same passage.) 

Ille traversa mente mi hodie tradidit repagula, 
quibus ego iram omnem recludam atque illi perniciem 

mihi maerores, illi luctum, exitium illi, exilium mihi. 

[Cic. De Nat. Deor. 3. 25.] 
[Cp. EUR. Med. 371 foil. : 

'O 5' Is TOOOVTOV (Mipias 
war', tbv avry rd/j.' i\iv 
fijs fK0a\6t>Ti, rfii/5' tcpfJHfv 
(j.(Li>ai p, kv 17 rpefy ruiv tfj.wv fx^pdav vetepovs 

iriKpovs 5' tytb ff(f>iv KOI \vypovs 0r]ff<a ydfuovs, 
mKpov 8J xfjdos icai (pvycLs l/wis \6ov6s.~\ 


(The Chorus appeal to the Sun-god to stay the hand of Medea.) 
Iiippiter tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes spicis 
quique maria terrain caelum contines tuo liimine, 
inspice hoc faciniis ! prius quam fiat, prohibesseis 


[PROBTJS in Verg. Ed. 6. 31.] 
[Cp. EUB. Med. 1251 foil. : 

'Iu> Td re Kai 7rafu{>at)s 
dierls 'A.(\iov, KariSfr' tSere rciv 
6\ofjLffav fvvaiKa, irplv (ftoiviav 
riievois irpoafiaXtTv x*p' OMTOKTOVOV.] 


PHOENIX was falsely accused of incontinence by Phthia, the con- 
cubine of his father Amyntor, who in his anger puts his son's eyes 
out. Phoenix flies to the court of Peleus, where he recovers his 
sight through the skill of Chiron, and is made king of the Dolopes. 
He seems to rebuke the nurse, who tempts him by the revelation 
of her mistress's passion (I, II) ; and he confronts his angry 
father, and proclaims his own innocence (III). 



. . . stultust qui cupita cupiens cupienter cupit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. cupienter.] 


Plus miser sim, si scelestum faxim quod dicam fore. 

[NONIUS, s. v. faxim.] 


Sed virum virtute vera vlvere animatum addecet 
fortiterque innoxium adstare adversum adversaries, 
ea libertas est qui pectus purum et firmum gestitat ; 
aliae res obnoxiosae l nocte in obscura latent. 

[AuL. GELL. 6. 17.] 


TELAMON receives with fortitude the (false) tidings of the death 
of both his sons (I) ; he resents the indifference of the gods, and 
sneers at the pretensions of priests and seers (II). 


Ego cum genui turn morituros scivi et ei re siistuli. 
praeterea ad Troiam cum misi ob defendendam Graeciam, 
scibam me in mortiferum bellum non in epulas mittere. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 3. 13.] 

Ego deum genus esse semper dlxi et dicam caelitum, 
sed eos non curare opinor quid agat humanum genus ; 
nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis ; quod mine 

Sed superstitiosi vates inpudentesque arioli, 
1 olmoxiosae, ' in the thraldom of passion.' 

Q. ENNIUS. 63 

aiit inertes aut insani aut quibus egestas imperat, 
qui sibi semitam non sapiunt alteri monstrant viam, 
quibus divitias pollicentur ab eis drachumam ipsi petunt. 
de his divitiis sibi deducant drachumam, reddant cetera. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 58 ; 2. 50.] 


THYESTES, in his old age, returns home, trusting to an oracle of 
Apollo (I) ; and seeking reconciliation with his brother. But 
Atreus treacherously sets before him the flesh of his own children 
to eat ; and when Thyestes realises what he has done, he announces 
himself as a moral leper (II), and calls down terrible curses on 
Atreus (III). 


Set me Apollo ipsiis delectat atque ductat Delphicus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. delectare.] 


Nolite, hospites, ad me adire ! ilico istim, 
ne contagio mea bonis limbrave obsit ! 
meo tanta vis sceleris in corpore haeret. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 3. 12.] 


Ipse summis saxis fixus asperis, evisceratus, 

latere pendens, saxa spargens tabo, sanie et sanguine 


neque sepulchrum quod recipiat habeat, portuni corporis, 
ubi remisfsa humana vita corpus requiescat malis! 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 44.] 




1. Nunquam poe'tor nisi sim podager. 

[PRISC. 29.] 

2. Malo hercle magno suo convivat sine modo. 

[NONIUS, s. v. convivare.] 


Restitant, occursant, obstant, obstringillant, obagitant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. obstringillare.] 

( The poet sounds his own welcome.) 
Enni poeta salve qui mortalibus 
versus propinas flammeos medullitus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. propinare.] 

(The terror of Scipio's name.') 
Africa terribili tremit horrida terra tumultu. 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 42.] 

(Voyage of Scipio to Africa, through calm seas [Livy 28. 17].) 
. . . mundus caeli vastus constitit silentio, 
et Neptunus saevus undis asperis pausam dedit ; 
Sol equis iter repressit lingulis volantibus, 
constitere amnes perennes, arbores vento vacant. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. a. 26.] 

Q. ENNIUS. 65 

(After the battle ofZama.) 
Testes sunt campi magni . . . 
lati campi, quos gerit Africa terra politos. 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 42. 167 : NONIUS, s. v. politiones.] 

(Scipio's hiffh services to Rome.) 
Desine Koma tuos hostes horrere superbos : 
nam tibi munimenta mei peperere labores. 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 42 ; De Fin. 2. 32.] 

(His contempt of the slanders brought against Mm.) 

Meum non est, ac si me canis memorderit. 

[AuL. GELL. 6. 9. i.] 

Nam. is non bene volt tibi, qui me falso criminat 

apud te. 

[NONIUS, s. v. criminat.] 


(Exploits of M. Fulvius Nobilior ; depression of Antiochus.} 
P6r gentes Asiae cluebat omnium miserrimus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. cluet.] 

(After the faking of Ambracia.~) 
. . . agros 
audaces populant servi domini dominorum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. populat.] 


(Ennius dreams that the philosopher Epicharmus appears to him in the 
world of shades, and expounds his systtm of physics,) 


Nam videbar somniare me lecto esse mortuum. 

[Cic. Acad. Pr. 2. 16. 52.] 



Animus cernit, animus audit, reliqua caeca et siirda 


[TEBTULL. De An. 18.] 


agilis hie 
est de sole sumptus ignis isque totus mentis est. 

[VAREO, R. R. 5. 59.] 


Istic est is lupiter quern dico, quern Graeci vocant 
aerem : qui ventus est et nubes, imber postea 
atque ex imbre frigus, tenuis post fit ae'r denuo, 
haece propter lupiter sunt ista, quae dico tibi, 
quando mortalis atque urbes beluasque omnes iuvant. 

(TAERO, R. R. 5. 65.] 

Sole Luna luce lucet alba leni lactea. 

[MARTIAN. CAP. p. 170.] 

HEDYPHAGETICA (after Archestratus). 

( When the Punic Wars brought wealth and Greek civilisation to 
Some, gastronomy became a science, and plain old-fashioned dinners 
were despised?) 

Omnibus ut Clipeae praestat mustela marina, 
mures sunt Aeni super, ostrea plurima Abydi ; 
Mytilenaest pecten charadrusque apud Ambraciai 

1. i. The passage is a free rendering from Archestratus, quoted 
by Athenaeus, Deipn. 3. 92 D. 

Toiis (Jivs Alvos x f ftefakovs, oarpeia 5' 'A/SvSos, 
Tois apierovs Ildptov, roiis 5t KTevas fj M.VTi\rivrj, 
7r\fiffTovs 8' ' irape\tt 

This fragment suggests a lacuna in the Latin after Abydi. The 
mus is a sort of sea-crayfish. 1. 3. pecten = ' scallop ' ; charadrus ? ; 
dops or helops is, perhaps, the ' sturgeon.' 

Q. ENNIUS. 67 

finis. Brundisio sargust, hunc, magnus erit si, 
sume tibi : apricluni scito prirnum esse Tarenti ; 
Surrenti fac emas elopem, glaucum prope Cumas. 
quid scarus? praeterii cerebrum lovis paene supremi. 
Nestoris ad patriam hie capitur niagnusque bonusque. 

[APUL. De Magia, 39.] 


Nemo me lacrumis decoret nee funera fletu 
faxit. cur? volito vivus per ora virum. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. r. 15. 34.] 

Hie est ille situs cui nemo civis neque hostis 
quivit pro factis reddere opis pretium. 

[Cic. De Legg. 2. 22. 57.] 


A sole exoriente supra Maeotis paludes 

nemost qui factis aequiparare queat. 
si fas endo plagas caelestum ascendere cuiquamst, 

mi soli caeli maxima porta patet. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 5. 17. 49.] 

F 2 




ANTIOPA, daughter of the Boeotian King Nycteus, being With 
child by Jupiter (I), is driven from her home by her father's 
threats (II). She finds refuge with Epopeus, King of Sicyon, 
who marries her. Nycteus on his death-bed commits the duty 
of punishing Antiopa to his brother Lycus, who slays Epopeus 
and carries Antiopa into captivity. On her way she bare two sons, 
whom she is forced to leave exposed on Mount Cithaeron. A 
herdsman finds them, and brings them up, giving them the names 
of Amphion and Zethus, the former devoting himself to music and 
philosophy, the latter to the rough life of herdsman and hunter 
(III). Antiopa, being cruelly treated in her captivity by Lycus' 
wife, Dirce, finds means of escape. She comes to the young men's 
homestead, and tells them the piteous story of her sufferings 
(IV, V, VI). Amphion is touched by the sight of her misery (VII, 
inc. fab. VI, Ribb,) ; but Zethus, thinking her to be a runaway 
slave, and hating all womankind (VIII, inc. fab. LIV, Ribb.), 
would not receive her. Meanwhile, a festival in honour of Bacchus 
is celebrated, and Dirce, accompanied by her train of Maenads 
with flying hair (IX) , comes to the place where Antiopa is seeking 
refuge. The young men bid them depart (X), but Dirce claims the 
surrender of her captive, and is about to slay her (XI, inc. fab. 
IV, Ribb.). But the herdsman having revealed to the brothers 
that Antiopa is their mother, she joyfully greets them, and they 
sat her free (XII). Dirce is then tied by her hair to a wild bull 
and dragged about till she is torn to pieces. Lycus would also have 
been slain, but Hermes saves his life and bids him hand over his 
kingdom to Amphion. 


The highly- wought description of Antiopa's sorrows is ridiculed 
by Persius (i. 77) : ' Sunt quos Pacuviusque et verrucosa moretur 
Antiopa aerumnis cor luctificabile fulta,' which last words may be 
actually borrowed from Pacuvius. A strong point of interest in 
the play is the contrast between the blunt, practical Zethus and 
the artistic, contemplative Amphion. This is alluded to in Horace 
(Ep. i. 18. 39 foil.), and is worked out elaborately in the Antiope 
of Euripides. Zethus is characteristic of the old Greek burgher, 
hating philosophy (XIII, inc. fab. II, Ribb.) ; Amphion is the 
Greek ' sophist.' We find him dealing with the necessity of change 
and alternation in nature (XIV), and propounding a perplexing 
riddle in involved language about his 'tortoise-lyre,' which Hermes 
gave him (XV). 

lovis ex Antiopa Nyctei nati [duo], 

[PROB. in Verg. Ed. 2. 25.] 
Minitabiliterque increpare dictis saevis fncipit. 

[Nonius, s. v. minitabiliter.] 
Tu cornifrontes pascere armentas soles. 

[SEKV. in Verg. Aen. 3. 540.] 

illuvie corporis 
et coma prolixa impexa conglomerata atque horrida. 

[ScnoL. ad Pers. i. 77.] 
. . . perdita inluvie atque insomnia. 

[CHAKIS. i. 78 P, insomnia, sing.] 

Frendere noctes misera quas perpessa sum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. frendere = gemere.] 


Miseret me, lacrimis Ifngua debiliter stupet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. debiliter.] 



Haud facile femina lina invenietur bona. 

[NONIUS, s. v. facul (?}.] 


fiords dispendite crines. 

[SERV. in Verg. Aen. 12. 605, floro3 = flavos.] 


Nonne hmc vos propere a stabulis amolimini? 

[Nomus, s. v. amolimini = recedite.] 


Agite, ite, evolvite, rapite, coma 
tractate per aspera saxa et humum, 
scindite vestem ocius. 

[MAK. VICTORIN. p. 2522 P.] 


Salvete gemini, mea propages sanguinis ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. propages.] 


Odi ego homines ignava opera et phi'losopha sententia. 

[AuL. GELL. 13. 8.] 


Sol si perpetuo siet, 

flammeo vapore torrens terrae fetum exiisserit : 
nocti ni interveniat, fructus per pruinam obriguerint. 

[VARRO, L. L. 6. 6. M.] 


AMPHIO. Quadrupes tardigrada agrestis humilis aspera, 
brevi capite, cervice anguina, aspectu truci, 


eviscerata 1 inanima cum animali sono. 
ASTICI. Ita saeptuosa dictione abs te datur, 
quod coniectura sapiens aegre contuit : 
non intellegimus, nisi si aperte di'xeris. 

AMPHIO. Testudo. 

[Crc. De Div. 2. 64.] 


THE play opens with the funeral games at the pyre of Achilles, 
and the announcement by Agamemnon that the Arms of Achilles 
will be the prize for the best warrior (I, II). The competition is 
open to all who desire to contend (III) ; but Ajax, who considers 
his own claims to be paramount, protests against this method of 
decision (IV), and refuses to be pitted against Ulysses [cp. Ov. 
Metam. 13. 5 foil, and 16 foil.]. He takes his stand on his signal 
services to the Greek army (V) ; contemptuously comparing the 
record of Ulysses with his own (VI). Agamemnon refers the dif- 
ficulty to Nestor (VII) ; who advises that the question be committed 
to the Trojan prisoners, who are bound by an oath to confess 
which of the heroes had inflicted most suffering on the Trojans 
(VIII). Agamemnon accepts his counsel (IX). In X and XI we 
find an allusion to the greatness of Ajax before the evil spirit came 
upon him : but Ulysses sneers at the misplaced wrath of the un- 
happy man, which is directed against his innocent rival, rather 
than against the Trojan prisoners who gave the decision. To 
the monologue of Ajax before his suicide may be referred that 
bitter complaint of the ingratitude of the Atridae (XII), which 
was in later times chanted at the funeral games after the assas- 
sination of Caesar, ' ad miserationem et invidiam caedis eius ' 

(SUET. lid. 84). 


. . . seque ad ludos iam inde abhinc exerceant. 

[CHAHIS. 2. p. 175 P.] 

1 eriscerata. So Hermes, in the process of making a tortoise into 
a lyre, aluv" etr6priatv optaKyoio ^tAd/j^y, so as to leave only the 
shell. Hymn. Merc. 43. 



Qui viget vescatur armis ut percipiat praemium. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vesci = uti.] 


. . . qui sese adfines esse ad causandum volunt, 
de virtu te is ego cernundi do potestatem omnibus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. causari = causam dicere : cernere = dimicare. ] 


An quis est qui te esse dignum quicum certetiir putet ? 

[NONIUS, certetur pro certet.] 


... si non est ingratum reapse quod fecf bene. 

[FESTUS, reapse = re ipsa.] 


tuque te 

desidere [in lecto residem], nos hie esse [mfseriis 

S, reses = ignavus.] 

. . . die quid faciam : quod me moneris, effectiim dabo. 

[NONIUS, s. r. moneris = monueris.] 


Proloqui non paenitebunt liberi ingrato ex loco. 

[NONIUS, s. r. paenitebunt.] 


. . . et aequum et rectum est quod tu postulas : 

iurati cernant. 

[NoNrus, s. v. cernere = iudicare.] 



Ciim recorder eius ferocem et torvam confidential!! 
. . . feroci ingenio, torvus, praegrandi gradu . . . 

[FESTUS, s. v. torvitas. NONIUS, s. v. confidentia.] 

Nam canis, quando est percussa lapide, non tam ilium 

qui sed icit, quam ilium eumpse lapidem, qui ipsa icta 

6st, petit. 

[NONIUS, s. 17. icit.] 


. . . men servasse, ut essent qui me perderent ! 

[StJET. lul. 84.] 


IN this play the story of Iphigenia in Tauris is produced in a 
novel form. Orestes, Pylades, and Iphigenia, who had carried off 
the image of Diana from her temple, encounter a storm on their 
voyage ; and when the calm weather returns (I), they land on a 
promontory of the island Sminthe (II), and survey the spot (III). 
To this moment we may refer the reflections introduced on the 
instability of Fortune (IV [inc. fab. XIV Ribb.]). Here they find 
the younger Chryses, son of the unfortunate Chryseis of the Iliad, 
serving as priest of Apollo. Thoas pursues the fugitives (V [inc. 
fab. LXXIII, Ribb.]), who, on being discovered, implore the pro- 
tection of Chryses and the inhabitants of the isle (VI) ; and 
Orestes reveals to the citizens the terrible deed of bloodguiltiness 
to which he has been driven by the importunities of his country- 
men, and the command of the gods (VII). But Thoas calls on the 
priest to exact expiation for the theft of the sacred image ; yet 
only the actual perpetrator of the sacrilege is to be put to death, 
that is to say, Orestes. But which is Orestes? and which is 
Pylades ? Each of the friends generously claims the name (VIII 
[inc. fab. XIII Ribb.]), and when Thoas is baffled, they urge him 
to put them both to death. However, Thoas thinks he has found 


the real culprit, and congratulates himself on the discovery (IX). 
When Chryses finds that Orestes and Iphigenia are the children of 
Agamemnon, all the bitter memories of the past come back upon 
him, and a deep desire for revenge (X). Orestes' fate seems sealed, 
and Thoas contemptuously laughs at the prayer of his captives 
CXI). At this moment of danger, Chryseis intervenes, reveals to 
her son the secret of his birth, and turns away his wrath (XII). 
Chryses is her son, not by Apollo but by Agamemnon, and so 
Orestes is his brother. The priest at once espouses the cause of the 
fugitives, and delivers them from the hands of Thoas, who falls in 
the fray. 

Two famous passages (XIII, XIV), conceived in the spirit of the 
Anaxagorean philosophy, have been generally referred to this 
play, though it is difficult to harmonise them with the general 
plot. If they are put into the mouth of Chryses, the sentiments 
seem inconsistent with the position of a priest of the gods. Al- 
though the references in Cicero and Nonius seem to be to the 
' Chryses,' the striking similarity between these passages and a 
fragment (836) from the ' Chrysippos ' of Euripides suggests that 
the word ' Chryses ' is given in error for ' Chrysippos ' ; and indeed 
the variants in the MSS. of Cicero point in the same direction. 


interea loci 
fliicti flacciscunt, silescunt venti, mollitur mare. 

[NONIUS, s. v. flucti.] 

Idae promunturium quoius lingua in altum proicit. 

[AUL. GrELL. 4. 17.] 

incipio saxum temptans scandere 
vorticem, summusque in omnes paries prospectum aiicupo. 

[NONIUS, s. v. aucupo.] 


Fortunam insanam esse et caecam et brutam perhibent 


saxoque instare in globose praedicant voliibilei. 

[quia quo id saxum impulerit fors, eo cadere Fortunam 

insanam autem esse afunt quia atrox incerta instabilis- 

que sit : 
caecam, ob earn rem esse iterant quia nil eernat quo 

sese adplicet : 
briitam, quia dignum atque indignum nequeat internos- 


sunt autem alii philosophi, qui contra Fortunam negant 
esse ullam, sed temeritate res regi oninis aiitumant. 
id magis veri simile esse usus reapse experiundo edocet : 
velut Orestes modo fuit rex, factust mendicus modo 
[naiifragio : nempe ergo id fluctu, haud forte fortuna 


[RHET. Ad Herenn. 2. 23. 36.] 


Tela, famuli, tela propere [ferte] ! sequitur me Toas. 

[CENSORIN. frag. c. 14, p. 95.] 


adiutamini et defendite ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. adiutamini. j 


Gives, antiqui amici maiorum meum, 
consilium socii, augiirium atque extum interpretes, 
postquam prodigiiun horriferum, portentiim pavor . . . 

[Cic. Orat. 46. 155.] 


P. Ego sum Orestes. 0. immo enim vero ego sum, 
inquam, Orestes. 


UTEKQUE. . . ambo ergo igitur si'mul una enicarier 


[Cic. De Fin. 5. 22 ; De Amic. 7. 24.] 


Inveni, opino, Orestes uter esset tamen. 

[NONIUS, s. v. opino.] 

Sed cesso inimicitiam integrare? 

[NONIUS, s. v, integrare,] 

pro merenda gratia 

simul cum videam Graios nil mediocriter 
redamptruare opibiisque summis persequi . . . 

[FESTUS, NONIUS, s. v. redan truare.] 


Di monerint meliora atque amentiam averruncassint 
tuam ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. monerint. VAKRO, L. L. 7. 102 M.] 


. . . nam isti qui linguam avium intellegunt 
plusque ex alieno iecore sapiunt quam ex suo, 
magis audiendum quam auscultandum censeo. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 57. NONIUS, s. r. auscultare est obsequi.] 


Hoc vide circum supraque quod complexu continet 


s<3lisque exortu capessit candorem, occasu nigret, 

id quod nostri caelum memorant Grai perhibent aethera : 


quidquid est hoc, omnia animat format alit auget creat 
sepelit recipitque in sese omnia, omniumque idem est 

indidemque eadem aeque oriuntur de integro atque 

eodem occidunt. 

mater est terra : ea parit corpus, animam aether adiugat. l 
[VAKBO, L. L. 5. 17 M. NONIUS, s. v. adiugare.] 


ORESTES appears on the stage disguised as a slave (SovAoy), driving 
his flock from Delphi to Mycenae (I). At the palace a marriage is 
about to be celebrated (II, III) ; for the unnatural Clytemnestra 
has determined to give her daughter Electra to Oeax, one of the 
sons of Nauplius (IV), who drew the Greek fleet to its destruction 
on the Euboean coast by false fire-signals (V). Such an alliance 
with the avowed enemies of her country would prevent the 
daughter of Agamemnon from succeeding in any scheme of 
vengeance ! Aegisthus, the swaggering tyrant (VI), tries by threats 
to force her into compliance (VII) ; but, revolting from the shame 
which would attend such a union (VIII), she defies her mother's 
authority. She is strengthened in her resolve by a conviction that 

1 Cp. EUR. Ckrysipp. fr. 836 : 

Feud pefiafT) Kal Atoy AlOrjp, 
6 ptv dv&puircw Kal Oeuiv yff(T<up, 
TI 8' v~fpofi6\ovs arayuvas various 
irapaStfaf^fVi] TtKTti Ovarovs, 
riKTti S( fiop&v <j>v\d rt QrjpSjv 


priTrjp irdfTcav vtvofuarat. 

Xo>/>f 5" tiirifftu 

TcL fjitv tie 70/05 <PVVT" is yatav, 

rcL 5' air' aWtpiuv P\aar6vTa yovfjs 

fls ovpdviov iraXiv ff\0( iro\ov 

BviJOKd 5' oilStV TUiV yifVOUfVOiVj 

Stcucpivofitvov 5' oAXo irpus d\\ov 


her brother is not far off (IX), and having found him she decides 
at once upon vengeance (X), and conspires with him against 
Aegisthus, though the task is a hard one (XI), as all the sons of 
Nauplius rally to his aid. Aegisthus seems, in his perplexity, to 
have consulted some oracle, and to have received a dubious answer 
(XII) ; but Oeax interprets the reply, and announces its meaning 
to be that Clytemnestra must have no chance of recognising 
Orestes (XIII). Pylades begins the struggle by slaying some of the 
defenders of Aegisthus, and, after a long civil strife between the 
partisans of Clytemnestra and of Agamemnon, the guilty tyrant 
and his adulterous consort are put to death. 


Delphos venum pecus egi, inde ad stabula haec itiner 


[NONIUS, s. v. itiner. ] 

. . . hymenaeum fremunt 
aequales, aula resonit crepitu musico. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sonit pro sonat.] 


Gnatam despondit, miptiis hanc dat diem. 

[NoNius, s. v. diem masc. et fern.] 


Pater Achivos in Caparei saxis pleros perdidit. 

[PBISCIAN, 5, p. 668 P, s. v. pleros.] 


nisi me calvitur suspicio 
hoc est illud quod fore occulte Oeax praedixit . . . 

[NoNius, s. v. calvitur = frustratur.] 


Amplus rubicundo colore et spectu protervo ferox. 

[FESTUS, s. v. spectu sine praepos.j 



Nam te in tenebrica sepe lacerabo fame 
clausam, at fatigans artus torto distraham. 

[NONIUS, s. v. torto pro tormentq.] 


Si quis hac me oratione incilet, quid respondeam ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. incilare = increpare.] 


Aut hie est aut hie adfore actutum autumo. 

[NONIUS, s. v. autumare = sperare.] 


Utinam nunc matrescam ingenio, ut rneiirn patrem 
ulcisci queam ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. matrescam = matri similis fiam.] 


. . . extemplo Aegisthi fidem 
nuncupantes conciebunt populum . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. conciere.] 


Nil coniectura quivi interpretarier 
quorsiim flexidica voce se contenderet. 

[NONIUS, s. r. contendit = proripuit.] 


Responsa explanat : mandat ne matri fuat 
cognoscendi unquam aut contuendi copia. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fuat = sit.] 



A STORY of love and rivalry. Neoptolemus comes to Delphi to 
consult the god as to the childlessness of his wife Hermione, who, 
with Menelaus and the old Tyndareus, accompanies him (I). At 
the same moment arrives Orestes with his friend Pylades to obtain 
deliverance from the haunting Furies (II). Orestes seeks refuge 
from them in the temple of Apollo, but they lay wait for him at 
the entrance, and pounce upon him as he departs. Then he espies 
Hermione, once his betrothed, but stolen from him by Neoptolemus 
with the connivance of Menelaus. He cannot believe his eyes, 
except he may touch her (III) ! He determines to claim her. 
Hermione is torn between love and duty : she recalls the shadow 
thrown on her life by the guilt of Helen, her mother (IV). In 
vain she invokes Eloquence, ' the queen that sways all hearts,' 
to find some convincing plea (V) : she dreads to think of the 
calamity she may be bringing upon her family (VI). Orestes 
declares that Hermione had been irrevocably given to him (VII). 
The rivals assert their respective claims : Neoptolemus recounts his 
own achievements and those of his sire Achilles (VIII, IX) : to 
him alone the Greeks owe their return from Troy (X). He taunts 
Tyndareus with his old age (XI) ; and his ill-judged haste in be- 
trothing his grand-daughter in the absence of her father Menelaus 
(XII). Orestes retorts that Neoptolemus had only married Her- 
mione in the hope of succeeding to the throne of Sparta (XIII). 
He has powerful advocates in the fanatical priests of Apollo, for 
Neoptolemus had offended the god ; and, at the moment of his 
expiatory sacrifice, they fling themselves upon him. Orestes 
espouses the cause of the god ; Neoptolemus is slain, and Orestes, 
in recompense, is purified from his bloodguiltiness. Hermione 
returns to her old lover, and peace is made between Argos and 
Delphi (XIV). 


quo tandem ipsa orbitas 
grandaevitasque Pelei peniiriam 

stirpis subauxit. 

[NONIUS, s, v. grandae vitas.] 

Tristi'tia atque animi intoleranda anxitiidine. 

[Nosius, s. v. anxitudo.] 



... at non cernam nisi tagam. 

[FESTUS, s. v. tagam.] 


Cum neque me aspicere aequales dignarent meae. 

[DIOMED. i, p. 395 P, s. r. digno.] 


flexanima atque omnium regina rerum oratio ! 

[Cic. De Orat. 2. 44.] 


Quantamque ex discorditate cladem importem familiae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. discord! tas.] 


Prfus data est quam tibi dari dicta, aiit quam reditumst 


[NoNius, s. r. dicere = promittere.] 


Quod ego in acie celebra obiectans vitam bellando aptus 

sum . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. aptus = adeptus.] 

Quid benefacta mei patris cuius opera te esse ultum 

autumant ? 

[NONIUS, s. r. autumo.] 


Nam solus Danais hie domum itionem dedit. 

[NONIUS, s. r. domutionem(?~.] 



Habet hoc senectus in se, cum pigra ipsa sit 
spisse lit videantur omnia ei confieri. 

[NONIUS, s. r. spissum = tarde.] 


Paucfs absolvit ne moraret diutius. 

[DIOMED. i, p. 395 P, s. v. moro.] 

regni alieni cupiditas 


[VARRO, L. L. 6. 94 M, s. v. pellexit.] 


Concorditatem hospitio adiunctam perpetem 

probitate conservetis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. concorditas.] 


POLYDORUS, youngest son of Priam and Hecuba, was entrusted to 
the care of his sister Iliona, wife of Polymestor the king of the 
treacherous (I) Thracians. She, however, brought him up at her 
breast (II), as her own child, letting her husband believe that the 
child which she had born him was really Polydorus. While the 
two children were still young Troy fell, and the Achaeans, desiring 
to destroy the whole house of Priam, bribed Polymestor by a gift of 
gold and the promise of the possession of Electra (III), to slay 
Polydorus. Through Iliona's device it was Polymestor's own son 
that was slain. The bloodstained ghost of the supposed Polydorus 
rises from the waves, and appears to his sleeping mother, awaking 
her with the piteous tale of his murder (IV). This is the scene 
about which Horace (Sat. 2. 3. 60 foil.) tells the amusing story of 
the drunken Fufius, who played the part of Iliona, sleeping 
through the passionate appeal of Catienus, who represented the 
murdered boy. Iliona cries to the poor ghost to stay and repeat 


the story (V), and she sends her servants to search the shore for 
the corpse (VI, VII, inc. fab. XXXI Ribb.). Polydorus, who had 
visited the oracle of Apollo, learns with surprise at the shrine that 
his ancestral city had been burned, his father slain, and his 
mother carried away captive. When he returns to Thrace he finds 
that none of these disasters had occurred (VIII) ; but Iliona then 
tells him the secret of his birth (IX, X ex inc. inc. fab. XLII Ribb.), 
and the brother and sister conspire against Polymestor, whom 
they first blind, and then slay (XI, XII). Fuller tidings come of 
the fall of Troy (XIII) ; of the fate of Hecuba, and of Cassandra, 
once beloved by Apollo (XTV). Polydorus remains as the hope of 
the royal house ; but the chance of his restitution to the kingdom 
is slight indeed (XV) ! 


Sed hf cluentur hospitum infidfssimi. 

[NONIUS, s. r. duet.] 


ab Ilio 
depulsum mamma paedogogandum accipit 

rep6tialis Lfber. l 

[FESTUS, s. . repotia,] 


blandam hortatricem adiugat 


[NoNitrs, s. r. adiugat.] 

Mater, te appello, tii quae curam somno suspensam levas 
neque te mei miseret, surge et sepeli natum [tuum] 

prius quam ferae 
volucresque . . . 

neu reliquias quaes6 mias sieris denudatis ossibus 
per terram sanie delibutas foede divexarier. 

[Cic. Tusc. IHsp. i. 44.] 

1 This ' festive draught' seems to mean ' mother's milk.' 
G 2 



Age asta : mane, audi : ftera dum eadem istaec mihi. 

[Cic. Acad. Pr. 2. 27,] 

Aut stagnorum umidorum rimarem loca . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. rimari.] 

Omnes latebras, siibluta 1 mole [omnes] abstrusos sinus. 

[SUE*. Ap. Isidar. De Nat. Her. 44.] 


Quos ego ita ut volui offendo incolumis . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. offendo = invenio,] 


Ne porro te error qui nunc lactat maceret. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lactare = decipere.] 


Qua tempestate Helenam Paris inmiptis iunxit nuptiis, 
ego turn gravida expletis iam fere ad pariendum men- 

per idem tempus Polydorum Hecuba partu postremo 


[Cic. De Orat. 3. 58.] 

Fac ut coepisti, hanc operam mihi des perpetem : 

oculos transaxim. 

[FESTUS, perpetem pro perpetuo,] 


Occidisti, ut miilta paucis verba unose obnuntiem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. unose = simul,] 

1 Subluta mole : ' where the cliff is washed by the sea.' 



Profecto aut inibi est aiit iam potiuntur Frugum. 

[NONIUS, s. r. inibi pro sic et mox. ] 


Paelici superstitiosae ciim vecordi coniuge. 

[FESTUS, vecors, mali cordis.] 


Usi honore credo Achivi hunc sceptrum patientur poti ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. poti pro potiri.] 


THIS play probably follows the lines of the Nnrr/w ^ 'Ofivaaivs 
a.KavOoir\ri of Sophocles. Telegonus, son of Ulysses by Circe, having 
been wrecked one dark night on the shore of Ithaca, enters un- 
wittingly his father's house, where the old hero was resting after 
his many years of wandering. As in the Odyssey, the old nurse 
(I) bathes her master's feet (N(7rrpa = foot-bath), and recognises 
him by his winning address and his fair, soft skin (II, III,. 
He talks with her as if he had only just returned from Troy, and 
not from that later wandering to the land of the Thesprotians, 
whither, after the Slaying of the Suitors, he journeyed in accord- 
ance with the command laid on him by Teiresias in the N'/mo. 
He speaks of the rude boat he built (IV), and of his visit to the 
Cyclops of Aetna (V, VI). Warned by an oracle that danger 
awaited him at the hands of his son, he repels from his doors this 
new intruder, who calls him ' father.' Telegonus resists ; and in 
the fray which follows he wounds Ulysses with his spear, tipped 
with the bone of a poisonous sea-fish. Ulysses is brought to the 
stage on a litter (VII), tortured with pain from his wound. And 
now the mystery is cleared up. The stranger is indeed his son, and 
the fatal weapon has been put in his hand by the jealous Circe 
(VIII). Ulysses recognises the fulfilment of the warning, and 
resigns himself to death (IX). 



Cedo tuum pedem mi, lymphis flavis flavum ut piil- 


manibus isdem, gufbus Ulixi saepe permulsi, abluam 
lassitudinemque minuam manuum mollitiidine. 

[AuL. GELL. 2. 26.] 


Lenitudo orationis, mollitudo corporis. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 5. 1 6.] 


Pariter te esse erga Ilium video, ut ilium ted erga scio. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pariter.] 


Nee lilla subscus 1 cohibet compagem alvei, 
sed siita limo et sparteis serilibus 2 . . . 

[FESTUS, s. m. subseudes : serilia.] 


Inde A6tnam montem advenio in scruposam specum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. specus,/ew.] 


aetate Integra 
feroci ingenio, facie proterva virum . . . 

[AuL. GELL. 13. 30 (29). 3.] 


ULIXES. Pedet6mptim ac sedato nisu, 
ne siiccussu arripiat maior 

1 Subscus = ' tenon ' or ' dovetaiL' 

* R&rilia (sero-ui) = ' ropes/ made from spartum, a sort of broom. 


CHOKUS. Tu quoque, Ulixes, quamquam graviter 

cernimus ictum, nimis paene animo es 

mollf, qui consuetus in armis 

aevom agere . . . 
ULIXES. Ketinete, tenete ! oppri'mit ulcus : 

nudate ! heu miserum me, excrucior ! 

operite ; abscedite iam iam ! 

mittite : nam attrectatu et quassu 

saevom amplificatis dol6rem. 

[Cir. Tusc. Disp. 2. ar.] 


Barbaricam pestem subinis nostris optulit, 
nova figura factam, commissam fnfabre. 

[NONIUS, s. r. infabre = foede.] 


Conquer! fortunam adversam non lamentari decet : 
id viri est offfcium, fletus miiliebri ingenio additus. 

[Cic. I, c. supr.~\ 


THE opening of the play sets before us the aged Telamon ex- 
hausted by fruitless wanderings in search of tidings about Ajax 
and Teucer (I), and the Salaminian matrons in mourning for 
their lost sons (II). When Teucer appears on the scene without 
his brother or the young Eurysaces, he is received by his father 
with the most furious denunciation (III) : the effect of the words 
being studiously heightened by the frequent recurrence of the 
sibilant s (sigmatismus), and the homoeotekuta. Teucer in his reply 
describes the despatch of the fleet from Troy by the reluctant 
Agamemnon (IV, ex inc. inc. frag. XLVI Ribb.). The ships set 
sail : Teucer commands the Thessalian contingent, as well as his 
own vessels (V). The voyage begins in the sunlight, among the 
sporting dolphins (VI, VII, inc. fab. XLIV, XLV Ribb.) : but at 


sundown the storm bursts on them (VIII, IX) ; and in the con- 
fusion Eurysaces is lost to sight. Yet Telamon admits no excuse, 
and refuses to listen to Teucer till his grandson is restored to him. 
The old man is described as plunged in grief, and brooding on 
Teucer's guilt (XI), who, however, is not wanting in friends to 
speak for him (XII), and to be hopeful of a reconciliation (XIII). 
But all is in vain ! How Teucer quits his country to found a new 
home in the Cyprian Salamis is told by Horace (Od. i. 7. 21 foil.) : 
but the only reference to this among the fragments of Pacuvius 
is the famous line, the original of which appears in Aristoph. 
Plut. 1151 TraTpts -yap tan Tiad 1 'iv' av irpdrrr} rts fv (XIV, ex inc. inc. 
fab. XLIX Ribb.). 


Postquam defessus perrogitandod advenas 
[fult] de gnatis, neque quemquam invenit scium . . . 

[PRISCIAN, 4. 634 P, s. v. scius.] 


Quae desiderio alumnum, paenitudine, 
squale scabreque, inculta vastitiidine . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. paenitudinem.] 


Segregare abs te ausu's aut sine illo Salaminam ingredi, 
neque paternum aspectum es veritus, quom aetate exacta 


liberum lacerasti orbasti extinxti, neque fratris necis 
neque eius nati parvi qui tibi in tutelam est traditus? 

[Cic. De Oral. 2. 46.] 


. . . inter se strepere aperteque artem obterere extispi- 

cum : 
solvere imperat secundo rumore aversaque avi. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 16.] 



mihi classem imperat 
Thessalam nostramque in altum ut properiter deducerem. 

[NONIUS, s. r. properiter = eeleriter.] 


Nerei repandirostrum incurvicervicum pecus. 

[QUINTIL. Inst. Orat. i. 5. 67.] 


Sic profectione laeti piscium lasciviam 
intuentur, nee tuendi capere satietas potest. 
fnterea prope iam occidente sole inhorrescit mare, 
tenebrae conduplicantur, noctisque et nimbum obcaecat 


flamma inter nubes coruscat, caelum tonitru contremit. 
grando mixta imbri largifico subita praecipitans cadit, 
undique omnes venti erumpunt, saevi existunt turbines, 

fervit aestu pelagus. 

[Cic. De Dh\ i. 14.] 


Rapide retro citroque percito aestu praecipitem rateni 
reciprocare, undaeque e gremiis subiectare adfligere . . . 

[FESTUS, s. v. reciprocare.] 


. . . arniamentum stridor, flictus navium, 
strepitus fremitus clamor tonitruum et rudentum sibilus. . . 

[SEKV. in Verg. Aen. i. 87.] 


Haiid sinam quidquam profari prius quam accepso quod 


[NONIUS, s. r. accepso = accipio.] 



Profusus gemitu, murmure ' occisti ' antruat. 

[FESTUS, s. v. profusus.] 

Nos ilium interea proliciendo propitiaturos facul 


[NONIUS, s. v. facul = faciliter.] 


Nam Teucrum regi sapsa res restfbiliet. 

[FESTUS, s. v. sapsa = ipsa.] 

. . . patria est ubicunque est bene. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 5. 37.] 



THE play deals with the exploits of the consul, L. Aemilius 
Paulus, the conqueror of the Macedonian king Perseus at Pydna, 
B. c. 1 68. Another notable character is introduced, the young 
Scipio Nasica, who fought on the heights of Mount Olympus with 
Milon, one of the generals of Perseus, and forced his way over the 
dizzy pass (I). We see Paulus on the morning of the battle sacri- 
ficing to Jupiter, from whom, through Ascanius, the gens Aemilia 
traced its descent (II). We see the Eoman and Macedonian 
armies in the thick of the fight (III). An episode in the battle is 
the exploit of young Marcus, son of the old Cato, who was Censor 
in B. c. 184. Marcus lost his sword in the struggle, and fearing the 

M. P AC U VI US. 91 

disgrace which would fall on his honoured father if his son was 
found without a sword, he prays to Jupiter for instant aid (IV). 
and after strenuous efforts recovers his lost weapon. 


Qua vix caprigeno generi gradilis gressio est. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 5. 14.] 


Pater supreme, nostra progenii patris. 

[AuL. GELL. 9. 14, progenii a progenies.] 


Nivft sagittis, plumbo et saxis grandinat. 

[NONIUS, s. v. nivit pro ninguit.J 


Niinc te obtestor, celere sancto subveni censdrio ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. celere pro celeriter.] 




A YOUNG profligate tells the story, how he had surreptitiously 
introduced his mistress into his father's house (I). The father 
seems to have announced to some friend his intention of cutting 
off his son's allowance. ' Then he will borrow,' says the friend. 
' Let him, for aught I care ! ' replies the father (II). The 
familiar character of the parasite is next introduced, as a regular 
' barathrum macelli' (Hor. Ep. i. 15.31) (III). He has been kicked 
out of the club of boon-companions (IV) ; and reproaches his 
patron with his cruel indifference. 


namque ego 
duabus vigiliis transactis diico desubito domum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. desubito.] 


' Ad amicos curret miituatum. ' ' Mtituet 

mea causa ! ' 

[NONIUS, s. v. mutuet. ] 


lam diidum depopulat macellum . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. populat. ] 



Meritissimo hie me eiecit ex hac decuria. 

[NONIUS, s. v. meritissimo.j 


Nihilne, nil tibi 6sse quod edim ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. edim pro edam.] 


AN angry father purchased a Milesian slave-girl, and made 
her over to one of his own friends, in order to ' block the pass 
in the way of his son,' who is in love with her (I). The youth 
evidently tries to stop the bargain that is being made with the 
leno ; however, he is plainly told that to succeed in love one must be 
supplied with ' the sinews of war' (II). He seeks the advice of a 
confidential slave, whose counsel to him is, not to attempt a 
Quixotic combat, 'with a sword against a brass caldron' (III). 
But the young man is not convinced : his motto is ' a short life and 
a merry one.' Leave the old man to drag out his years ' drop by 
drop ' to the very end ! (IV, V). 


Miletidam : ego illam huic despondebo, et gnato saltum 


[DIOMED. p. 387 P. s. v. obsipio = obsaepio."i 

Desine blanditiae, : nugas blateras, agit 

in amore inermus. 

[NONIUS, s. c. blaterare.] 

Machaera quin licitari adversum ah6num coepisti sciens ? 

[NONIUS, s. i 1 . licitari = pugnare.] 

1 gen. sing., as 'desine querelaruin' Hor. Od. a. 9. 17. 


Mihi sex menses satis sunt vitae, septimum Oreo spondeo. 

[Cic. De Fin. 2. 7.] 

Sine suam senectiitem ducat usque ad senium sorbilo. 

[FESTUS, p. 339 M. s. v. senium.] 


A SPECIAL interest attaches to this comedy, because Aul. Gellius 
(2. 23) takes occasion, by comparing it with the original play 
of Menander, to show the great inferiority of the Latin poet. 
The title is obscure : some have suggested that it is the actual 
name of the heroine ; others, with better reason, render it ' Ring- 
let,' or ' Necklace ' something, at any rate, which serves as a 
material piece of evidence in the denouement of the play. The 
plot is probably somewhat as follows : Two families live near 
together on friendly terms. The head of one of these is an elderly 
husband, smarting under the tyranny and jealous suspicion of his 
ugly but richly-dowered wife, Crobyle, who has compelled him to 
part with his dangerously attractive waiting-maid, and coarsely 
boasts of her success. In the bitterness of his soul he tells the 
story to his crony ; and they pass very uncomplimentary remarks 
on the haughty and repulsive dame (I-III). Crobyle's son was 
betrothed to a daughter of the other family ; and the marriage was 
about to take place, when the startling news is brought that the 
girl has given birth to a child. The marriage is hastily postponed 
(IV) ; and we gather from the corresponding play of Menander 
that Crobyle urges her son to forget his old love, and to marry a 
rich relation. But the unfortunate girl, who has been repudiated, 
has a faithful friend in her slave Parmeno. He gains the con- 
fidence of the young man, and they discuss various views of life 
how it is money which covers ' the multitude of sins ' (V) ; how 
old age brings with it many things one would rather not see (VI) ; 
how one must make the best of bad bargains (VII, VIII). Then 
Parmeno begins to calculate back the months before the birth of 
this child ; and he reminds the young man of a certain night, 
when he had been in the company of a fair young stranger, whom 


he had not recognised (IX-XI). And we may suppose that the 
' Necklace ' somehow turns out to be the proof of his own father- 
hood of the child, whose birth seemed to have ruined his hopes. 
Evidently all difficulties were surmounted, and Parmeno gained 
his freedom for his success (XII). 


... Is demum miser est qui suam aerumnam nequit 
occultare foris : ita uxor mea forma et factis faeit, 
etsi taceam, tamen indicium mea6 quae, nisi dotem, 


quae nolis habet. qui sapft de me discet, 
qui quasi ad hostis captus liber servio salva urbe atque 


dum eius mortem inhio, egomet inter vivos vivo mortuus. 
quae mihi quidquid placet eo privatum it me ser- 

vatam velim? 
ea me clam se cum mea ancilla ait consuetum. id me 

arguit : 
ita plorando orando instando atque obiurgando me 6p- 


earn uti venderem. nunc credo inter suas 
aequalis, cognatas, sermonem serit : 
'quis vostrarum fuit integra aetatula 
quae hoc idem a viro 
impetrarit suo, quod ego anus modo 
effeci, paelice lit meum privarem virum ? ' 
haec erunt concilia hocedie : differor sermone misere. 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 


' Sed tua morosane uxor quaeso est ? ' ' Va ! rogas ? ' 
' Qui tandem ? ' ' Taedet mentionis, qua6 mihi 


ubi domum adveni ac sedi, extemplo savium 
dat ieiuna anima.' ' Nil peccat de savio : 
ut devomas volt quod foris potaveris.' 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 

III. . 

Placere occepit graviter postquam emortuast ! 

[NoNius, s. c. graviter = multum.] 


Abi intro atque istaec aufer, si tamen hodie extollat 


[NONIUS, s. v. extollere = differre.] 


... is demum infortunatust homo, 
pauper qui educit in egestatem liberos : 
cui fortuna et res nuda est, continuo patet. 
nam opulento famam facile occultat factio. 

[AuL. GELL. Z. c.] 


Edepol, senectus, si nil quicquam aliud viti 
adportes tecum, cum advenis, unum id sat est, 
quod diu vivendo miilta quae non volt videt. 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. 8. 25.] 


Potire quod dant, quando optata non danunt. 

[Nonius, s.v. danunt = dant.] 


Vivas ut possis, quando nee quis lit velis, 

[DoNAT. in Ter. Andr. 4. 5. 10.] 



' Soletne mulier decimo mense parere ? ' ' pol nono 

etiam septimo atque octavo.' 

[AuL. GELL. 3. 16.] 


Pudebat credo commemoramentum stupri. 

[NONIUS, s. v. commemoramntum.] 


Properatim in tenebris istuc confectum est opus. 

[Nomus, s. v. properatim.] 


' Liberne es ? ' ' non sum, verum inibi est . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. inibi = mox.] 

The comments made by Gellius (2. 23) are as follows : ' Caecili 
Plocium legebamus ; Aaudquaquam mihi et qui aderant displicebat. 
Libitumst Menandri quoque Plocium legere, a quo istam comoediam 
verterat. Sed enim postquam in mnnus Menander venit, a principio 
statim, di boni, quantum stupere atque frigere quantumque mulare a 
Menandro visus est! Diomedis hercle arma et Glauci non dispari 
magis pretio existimata sunt. Accesserat dehinc lectio ad earn locum 
in quo maritus senex super uxore divite atque deformi querebatur, 
quod ancillam suam, non inscito puellam ministerio et facie haut 
inliberali, coactus erat venundare, suspectam uxori quasi pelicem* 
Nihil dicam ego quantum differat : versus utrimque eximi iufsi et alii* 
ad iudicium faciundum exponi. Menander sic : 

fir' a/upoTtpa vvv ff 'iriie\ripos f) KO.\T) 
[it\\ti KaOtvSrjaeiv. Kardpyaffran /it-yo 

/CoJ Vpl(36T)TOV fpfOV (K TTJS OIKU1S 

(ffia\t r^v \virovaav ffv /3ovATO, 
tv' diroft\tiTcuai iravrts tis rti Kpw(3v\T)s 
rrp6ffanrov, $ T' (vyvemaTos ova 
, ical rty 6if/iv 



ovos fv md-fjKois tffrl 5?) ro \eyofj.tvov. 
rovro S criojirav Pov\ rrjv VVKTO. rijv 

\af3ecv t/J.' eKKai8(KO.Ta.\avTOV, & Oeol, 
yvvatov ovffav irfixfcas' fir' tcrrl T<$ 
(ppvay/M mas viroffrarov ; fia TOV Ala 
rov 'O\ Kal rty 'A.6rjvav, ouSo^cDs, 
TraiStffKapiov OepairtvTiKov 5e Kal \6yov 

[Then follows the quotation from Caecilius (I) ' is demum miser 
. . . misere ' : after which Gellius proceeds] ' Praeter venustatem 
autem rerum atque verborum, in duobus libris nequaquam parem, in 
hoc eqnidem soleo animum attendere, quod quae Menander praeclare el 
apposite etfacete scripsit, ea Caecilius ne qua potuit quidem conatus est 
enarrare, sed quasi minime probanda praetermisit et alia nescio quae 
inimica inculcavit ; et ilhtd Menandri de vita hominum media sump- 
turn, simplex et verum e.t delectabile, nescio quo pacto omisit. Idem 
enim ille maritus senex cum altero sene vicino colloquens et 
locupletis superbiam deprecans haec ait, 

f\ca 5' tmic\T)pov Aafitav' OVK ftprjita ffoi 
rovr' ; efr" ap ov^i ; Kvplav TTJS oln'ias 
Kal TUIV aypwv KOI rSiv irarfxacav dvTiKpvs 
exofJtfv, "Airo\\ov, us x 11 ^* 
airaffi 8" apya\ia 'arif, OVK fftol 
vicu, TroAii ftd\\ov Ovyarpi. 

irpaj/j.' apa.xov \tyeis. 

Caecilius vero hoc in loco ridiculus magis quam personae isti quam 
tractabat aptus atque convenient videri maluit. Sic enim haec corrupit ' . 
[Then follows frag. II ' Sed tua morosane . . . potaveris '] ' Quid de 
illo quoque loco in utraque comoedia posito existimari debeat mani- 
festum est, cuius loci haec ferme sententia : filia hominis pauperis in 
pervigilio vitiata est. Ea res clam patrem fuit, et habebatur pro 
virgine. Ex eo vitio gravida mensibus exactis parturit. Servus bonae 
frugi cum pro foribus domus staret et propinquare partum erilijlliae 
atque omnino vitium esse oblatum iynoraret, gemitum et ploratum puellae in puerperio enitentis : timet, irascitur, suspicatur, 
mlseretur, dolet. Hi omnes motus eius affectionisque animi in Graeca 
quidem comoedia inirabiliter acres et illustres, apud Caecilium autem 
pigra istaec omnia et a rerum dignitate atque gratia vacua sunt. Post 


nbi idem servus percontando quod acciderat repperit, has aput Menan- 
drum versus facit : 

oans v itfi>T]s 

Kal iraifioirotfiO'. ws d\6yiffros lor" dvrip. 
8s /7T <pv\aKrjv ruiv dvayKaieav ?x**> 
/J.TIT' av drvxfjffas fis rcL /eoivd rov fiiov 
iiran<f)ifa6ai TOVTO Svvarat \pfifiaaiv, 

ical ra\aiiruipca 0icp 

77, TWV /iti/ viapwv ex^f 
TO ftfpos airavTcav, rS>v 5' dyaOiav ov Svvdfitvos. 
vit^p yap (v&s dA/ycDv, airavras vovOtrui. 

Ad horum autem sinceritatem veritatemque verborum an adspiraverit 
Caecilius consideremus. Versus sunt hi Caecili, trunca quaedam es 
Menandro dicentis et consarcientis verba tragici tumoris : [Then 
follows frag. V. is demum . . . factio.] Itaqtie, ut supra dixi, cum Caecili seorsum lego neutiquam videntur ingrata ignavaque, cum 
autem Graeca comparo et contendo, non puto Caetilium sequi debuisse 
quod assequi nequiret. 


IN place of the ordinary lover, complaining of the severity or 
stinginess of his father, we have, as an amusing surprise, a young 
man sorely vexed at the embarrassing indulgence and generosity 
of his parent, and envying the lot of those happy sons who can 
enjoy to the full the delight of over-reaching a father's niggardli- 
ness (I). His comrade has an equally strange story to tell, for 
he announces as a prodigy demanding instant expiation, the 
discovery of a courtesan who refused to take money from her lover 
(II). Another touch of unselfishness is given in Frag. III. 


In amore suave est siimmo summaque inopia 
parentem habere avarurn inlepidum, in llberos 
difficilem, qui te nee amet nee studeat tui. 
aut tu ilium furto fallas aut per litteras 
avertas aliquod nomen aut per servolum 

H 2 


percutias pavidum, postremo a parco patre 
quod sumas quanto dissipes libentius ! 

Quern neque quo pacto fallam nee quid inde auferam 
nee quern doluni ad eum aut machinam commoliar 
scio qiiicquani : ita omnis meos dolos fallacias 
praestigias praestrfnxit commoditas patris. 

[Cic. De Nat. Deor. 3. 29.] 


Pro deum, populariuni omnium, omnium adulescentium 
clamo, postulo, obsecro, oro, ploro, atque imploro fidem ! 

... in civitate fiunt facinora capitalia ; 

nam ab amico amante argentum accipere meretrix noenu 


[Cic. De Nat. Deor. i. 6.] 

Sen't arbores quae alteri saeclo prosint. 

[Cic. Cat. Mai. 7. 24.] 


' Trust me not at all, or all in all.' 

Si confidentiam adhibes, confide omnia. 

[IsiDOB. Grig. 10. 40. s. v. confidens.] 


' Love is stitt the Lord of all.' 
deum qui non summum putet, 
aut stultum aut rerum esse inperitum existumem : 


cui in manu sit, qu6m esse dementem velit, 
quern sapere, quern sanari, quern in morbum inici, 

quern contra amari, quern expeti, quern arcessier. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 4. 32.] 


' The path of duty was the way to glory,' 

Homo homini deus est sf suum officium sciat. 

[SYMMACHTJS, Ep. 9. 114.] 


Wisdom under a ragged coat. 

Saepe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapiSntia, 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 3. 23.] 



(AULUS GELLIUS (3. 3. 4) informs us that Varro assigned the 
' Boeotia ' to Plautus, basing his judgment on the passage here 
quoted as unmistakably in the Plautine style. But the allusion 
to the introduction of sun-dials (Pliny, N. H. 7. 60) seems to make 
the date between B.C. 174 and 154. The parasite found his own 
belly the best time-keeper !) 

Ut ilium di perdant primus qui horas repperit, 
quique adeo primus statuit hie solarium : 
qui mihi comminuit misero articulatim diem. 
Nam umim me puero venter erat solarium 
multo omnium istorum optimum et verissimum : 
ubi is non monebat esse, nisi cum nil erat? 
nunc etiam cum est, non estur, nisi soli lubet. 
itaque adeo iam oppletum oppidumst solariis, 

maior pars populi ut aridi reptent fame. 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 



(THE identity in meaning of Imbrex and Tegula suggests that 
the author of the ' Neaera ' is the P. Licinius Tegula, the writer of 
a sacred hymn ordered by the decemvirs, B. c. 200, to be sung in 
the streets of Rome by a chorus of nine maidens, so as to expiate 
certain prodigies [Livy 31. 12]. The fragment quoted of the 
' Neaera ' is the complaint of some dashing officer that his wife is 
not sufficiently distinguished by her name Neaera, which he pro- 
poses should be altered to Neriene, or Nerio, the spouse of the 

Nolo ego Neaeram te vocent, sed Nerienem, 

cum quidem Mavorti es in conubium data. 

[AuL. GELL. 13. 23.] 




THIS title is said to have been a colloquial name for a sort of 
dumpy bucket ; but the fragments throw no light on the title. 
An embroiderer [Phrygio] has done well for himself, and is leaving 
his employers (I). A cowardly bully is introduced, who runs up 
to his foe like a skirmisher (veles'), and then runs back (II). A 
joke is made upon the mincing pronunciation of young men of 
fashion, who are not strong enough to say the simplest word in 
full. ' Edepol,' ' medius fidius,' or even ' medi,' entail too much 
exertion. ' Edi ' is the utmost they can do. 

. . frygio fui primo beneque id opus scivi ; 
reliqui acus aciasque ero atque erae nostrae . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. frygio.] 


ita spurcus 

animatur ira in proelium : veles eques recipit se 
neque ferit quemquam hostem. 

[NONIUS, s. r. veles.] 



id necessest? 


[CHARIS. 2. p. 178 P.] 


FULLONIA : sc. fabula, i. e. ' The play about the Fullers ' ; a set of 
men whose occupation afforded endless amusement to the Latin 
comic poets. Here the merriment seems to turn partly on the 
quarrelling between the Fullers and the Weaving-women, and 
partly on the bickering between a husband and wife. Probably a 
Fuller had married a Weaver with a bit of money of her own, and 
she chafes at his extravagance (I). Her husband taunts her with 
the days of his courtship, and the change since then (II) ; to 
which she retorts with much self-satisfaction (III). Then there 
is quarrelling between the employer and his workmen (IV) ; and 
between the Fullers, ' who never get a holiday ' (V), and the lazy 
women ' who take ten years over one gown ' (VI). But the Weavers 
think themselves indispensable (VII), and laugh at the Fullers for 
their amphibious life (VIII). But both sides agree in despising 
the work of the delving rustic (IX). 


Ego me mandatam me6 viro male arbitror, 
qui rem disperdit et meam dotem comest. 

[NONIUS, s. v. comest = comedit.] 


videram ego te virginem 
formosam, forma ferocem, mihi esse sponso tud superbam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ferox.] 


Aspecta formam atque 6s contemplate meum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. contempla.] 



Da pensam lanam, qui non reddit temper! 
putatam recte, facito ut multetiir malo. 

[NONIUS, s. v. putare.] 
Nee noctu nee diu licet fullonibus quiescant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. diu =- die.] 
quae intra decem 

annos nequisti togulam unam detexere. 

[NONIUS, s. T. toga.] 

Ni nos texamus, nil siet, fullones, vobis quaesti. 

[NONIUS, s. v. quaesti.] 

Terra istaec est, non aqua, ubi tu solitu's argutarier 
pedibus, cretam diim compescis, vestimenta qui laves. 

[NONIUS, s. v. argutari = subsilire.] 

Homo formicae pol per simil est riisticus. 

[NONIUS, s v. simile (?).] 


'THE lady of Setia' a dull, secluded town overlooking the Pomp- 
tine Marshes. The good citizen, who does not like this swamp, 
would gladly have the water led from the Tiber to his town (I). 
It may be the same provincial wit who sees how far a little wisdom 
goes (II). But he is so cautious that he is afraid to marry (III) ; 
and his friend Caeso has to try and raise his pluck (IV). The 
young lady is so grand ! (V) and such a paragon of perfection, 
that, in praising her, one must add ' without offence ! ' to avert the 
' fascinatio' which waits on boasting (VI). For frag. VII see sup. 
Barbatus III. 



Vidistin Tiberini ? Vidi : qui illam derivet, beaverit 

agnim Setinum. 

[SERV. in Verg, Aen. n. 457.] 


Sapientia gubernator naveni torquet, haut valentia ; 
cocus magnum ahenum, quando fervit, paula confutat 


[NONIUS, s. v. trua, &c.] 


Ipsus quidem hercle ducere earn sane nevult. 

[NONIUS, s. i: nevult.] 


Accede ad sponsam audacter, virgo milla est tails Setiae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. tale (?).] 


sed iam metuo hercle, Caeso, ne nimis stulte fecerim. 
qui ex tanta factione atque opibus puellam sum ausus 


[NONIUS, s. v. factio = nobilitas.] 


Paula mea, amabo, pol tuam ad laudem addito 

' praefiscini.' 

[CHAHIS. 2. p. 189 P.] 


An quia ' pol edepol ' fabulare, ' edi ' ' medi ' meministi '? 

[CHARIS. 2. p. 178 P.J 




THE Epicleros (Heiress) of Menander opened with a monologue. 
Turpilius has changed this to a dialogue between the slave Ste- 
phanio, and his uneasy young master, who rouses him from his 
bed to roam about with him at night (I). Stephanio protests 
against this caprice (II). The young man is pressed by his parents 
to marry the heiress : they assure him she is the best of wives for 
him (III) ; and the father hopes that their advice will not make a 
breach between them and their son (IV). It is difficult to fit in 
the remaining fragments. Perhaps the young man, wishing to 
wash his hands of the affair, appeals to the ' cognatus,' who by 
rights ought to many the orphan heiress himself (V). The man is 
touched by the youth's sorrow (VI), and he acknowledges that the 
father's importunity has made his son ' rich in excuses ' (VII). 
Finally, the relative seems to accept his duty (VIII), and the young 
man is relieved. 


ST. Quaeso edepol quo ante liicem te subito rapis, 
Ere, cum uno puero ? PH. Nequeo esse intus, Stephanio, 
ST. Quid ita ? PH. ut solent, me curae somno segregant 
forasque noctis excitant silentio. 

[PBISCIAN, De Metris Com. p. 1326 P.] 



Currendum sic est, sic datur, nimium ubi sopori servias 
potiiis quam domino. 

[PRISCIAN, 1. C.] 


Cum legere te optimum esset atque aequissimum 
qua cum aetas degenda et vivendum esset tibi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. legere.] 

. . . sperabam consilia nostra dividiae tibi, 

cum aetas accesset, non fore. 

[NONIUS, s. v. dividia.] 


Ni Callifonis mine te iniseret liberum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. liberum, gen. plur.~] 


Sed nequeo ferre hunc diiitius sic lamentari et conqueri, 
nee esse suae parum obsequellae . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. obsequela.] 


Te quidem omnium pater iam copem causarum facit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. copem = copiosum.] 


Sed volo ut familia nostra officia fungatur sua. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fungi cum occwa.] 


' THE Lady of Leucas ' is a parody on the story of Sappho. The 
Phaon of the play is a hideous Lesbian boatman, who once ferried 


over the water Venus, disguised as an old woman, so evidently 
poor that Phaon excused her the fare. In recompense, she made 
him, in spite of his ugliness, the idol of all the women. One of 
the Lesbian damsels is so smitten that she turns from her old 
lover, arid gives all her heart to Phaon. Her lover is amazed at 
her choice and at Phaon's grand airs (I-IV). He attempts his 
former familiarities ; but the girl repulses him (V), and makes 
desperate love to Phaon (VI), confessing her jealousy of some other 
woman (VII). Phaon being obdurate, the girl wanders to the 
desolate cliff (VIII), and, calling the gods and the winds to her 
aid, takes the Lovers' Leap (IX). Phaon orders out a boat (X), 
and the poor girl is rescued, very wet and cold (XI) But the 
charm is broken. Dorcium is reconciled to her old lover (XII), 
and holiday clothes are donned for the marriage (XIII). 


Quern olim oderat, sectatur ultro et detinet : 
ille insolens autem lit fastidit carnifex ! 

[Nonius, s. v. insolens.] 


Viden tu Frygis incessum ? quam est confi'dens ! di 

istunc perduint. 

[NONIUS, s. v. confidentia.] 


. . . viden ut fastidit mei? 

[NONIUS, 496. 1 8, genii, pro accus.] 


Ei peril ! viden ut osculatur cariem ? num hilum ilia 

haec pudet? 

[NONIUS, s. v. caries.] 


... ' ne me attigas, atque aufer 
manum ! ' ' Heia, quern ferocula est ! ' 



Intercapedine interficior, desiderio differor : 

tu es mihi cupiditas, suavitudo et mei animi expectatio. 

[NONIUS, s. v. suavitudo.] 


Verita sum, ne amoris causa cum ilia limassi's caput. 

[NONIUS, s. v. limare = coniungere.] 


me miseram terrent omnia, 
maris scopuli, sonitus, solitudo, sanctitudo Apollinis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sanctitudo.] 


Te, Apollo sancte, fer opem, teque, omnipotens Nep- 
tune, invoco 
vosque adeo venti ! . . . nam quid ego te appellem, 

Venus ? 

[Cic. Twsc. Disp. 4. 34.] 

hortari coepi nostros ilico 

ut celerent lembum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lembus.] 

6 utinam nunc apud ignem aliquem magnum adsidam ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. apud = iuxta.] 

Ante facta ignosco : mitte tristitatem, Dorcium. 

[NONIUS, s. . tristitas.] 

Etiam amplius illam apparare condecet, 
quando quidem voti condemnata est . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. damnare (voti).] 




THE first fragment (I) of the Andromeda suggests that the sea- 
monster, to whom the princess was to be surrendered, came up from 
the depths month after month to devour his prey (I). Perhaps 
the Prologue introduced Cepheus or Cassiopea lamenting over the 
terrible floods and snow-storms which the angry Neptune had sent 
upon the land (II). The wrath of the gods can only be appeased 
by the sacrifice of Andromeda to the monster ; and already Perseus 
has promised to be her champion (III) ; but he is baffled by the 
hopelessness of the task and ashamed at his own weakness (IV). 
Andromeda is chained in a narrow, circumscribed spot [templum], 
heaped up with dead men's bones (V), as she herself describes it 
'^VI, VII). When Cepheus promises the hand of Andromeda to her 
rescuer, Perseus assures him this gracious act will not be wasted 
(VIII). By-and-by, Cepheus repents his promise (IX, ex inc. inc. 
fab. CHI. Ribb. ) : he professes that he cannot bear to part with the 
darling of his old age (X) . But Perseus will not give up his love ; 
and if her father seeks to part them, he may as well slay them 
both (XI). 


Qua Luna circles annuo in cursu institit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. oirculus. ] 

L. ACCIUS. 113 


Cum ninxerit caelestium molem mihL 

[PRISCIAN, 10. p. 882 P. ningua] 


Nisi quid tua facultas nobis tulat opem, peream ! 

[MACROB, De Diff. Gr. et Lat. verbi.] 


Nec quei te adiutem invenio : hortari piget, non pro- 

desse id pudet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. piget, pudet.] 


Immane te habet templum obvallatum ossibus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. immane.] 


Misera obvalla saxo sento, paedore alguque et fame. 

[NONIUS, s. f. algu = algore.] 


Qui neque terraest datus, nee cineris causa unquam 

evasit vapos. 

[NoNius, s. c. vapor et vapos.] 

Quod beneficium haut sterili in segete, r6x, te obsesse 


[NoNius, s. r. seges = terra.] 


Meministin te spondere inilii gnatam tuam? 

[VARKO, L. L. 6. 72.] 

Alui educavi : id facite gratum ut sit seni. 

[NONIUS, s. v. alere et educare.] 




Nosque lit sevorsum divides leto offeres. 

[NoNius, s. v. divides = separates.] 


IN this drama Accius omits the motive which Pacuvius intro- 
duces from the Cyclics : that the decision is referred to the Trojan 
captives. But in their main outlines the two plays are similar. 
Though the heroes are eager, one and all, to succeed to the in- 
heritance of the Arms of Achilles (I), Ajax will not take part in 
.the tournament, nor be pitted against Ulysses (II, III). The de- 
cision is to turn, he says, on the ruling (dictio^, which had been 
laid down by Thetis (or, perhaps, by Calchas), that the Arms may 
be given only to a man like Achilles. And Ajax puts his claim on 
two grounds : i, relationship for Ajax and Achilles had both the 
same grandsire ; and, 2, his own deeds of valour (IV, ex inc. inc. 
fab. XXX Ribb.). He recounts the feigned madness of Ulysses at 
the beginning of the war ; the consequences of which were averted 
only by the sagacity of Palamedes (V, ex inc. inc. fab. XXXI Ribb.). 
Ironically, he pretends to credit Ulysses with his own great achieve- 
ments (VI, ex inc. inc. fab. XXXII Ribb.). After his fit of frenzy 
has passed, Ajax thinks with grief of the sorrow which will fall 
upon Telamon (VII) : he demands a sight of Eurysaces, whom 
Tecmessa had removed, with a caution which was at least excusable 
(VIII) ; and he questions his wife as to all that took place during 
his fit of madness ; though she can scarcely dare to answer freely 
(IX). Then comes the famous prayer of Ajax for his son (X, Soph. 
Aj. 550). The Chorus is in great anxiety about the fate of the mighty 
champion of Greece (XI), whose loss of Minerva's friendship is 
deplored (XII). The play ends with the reconciliation between 
Teucer and the Atridae, by the intervention of Ulysses (XIII). 
' Let all old feuds be buried in a general amnesty ! ' (XIV). 


Sed ita Achilli armis inclutis vesci studet 
ut cuncta opima levia iam prae illfs putet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vesci.] 

L. ACCIUS. 115 


. . . quid est ciir componere aiisis mihi te aut me tibi V 

[NONIUS, s. v. componere.] 

. . . nam tropaeum ferre me a forti viro 
pulchrum est : si autem vincar, vinci a tali nullum mi 

est probrum. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 56.] 


Aperte fatur dictio, si intellegas ; 

tali dari arma, qualis qui gessit fuit, 

iubet, potiri si studeamus Pergamum. 

quern ego me profiteor esse, mest aequiim frui 

fraternis armis mihique adiudicarier, 

vel quod propinquus, vel quod virtuti aemulus. 

[RHET. Ad Herenn. 2. 26. ] 

Cuius ipse princeps iiiris iurandi fuit, 
quod omnes scitis, solus neglexit fidem : 
furere adsimulare, ne coiret, institit. 
quod ni Palamedi perspicax prudentia 
istius perspexit malitiosam audaciam, 
fide sacratae ius perpetuo falleret. 

[Cic. De Off. 3. 26.] 


Vidi te, Ulixes, saxo sternentem Hectora, 
vidi tegentem clipeo classem Doricam : 
ego tune pudendam trepidus hortabar fugam. 

[CHARIS. 4. p. 252 P.] 


Maior erit luctus, cum me damnatum audiet. 

[NONIUS, s.v. damnare.] 
I 2 



Ubi cura est, ibi anxitudo acerbast, ibi cunctatio, 
consiliorum erratic et fortiinaest. 

[NONIUS, s. v. anxitudo. ] 


Hem, vereor plus quam fas est captivam hiscere. 

[NONIUS, s. v. hiscere = loqui. ] 

Virtiiti sis par, dispar fortunis patris. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 58.] 


In quo salutis spes supremas sibi habet summa exerciti. 

[NONIUS, s. v, exerciti.] 

Nam non facile sine deum opera humana propria sunt 


[NONIUS, s. v. proprium = perpetuum.] 


Cur vetera tarn ex alto appetissis discidia, Agamemno? 

[NONIUS, s. v. altum=vetus.] 


noxitudo . . . 
oblitteretur Pelopidarum, ac per nos sanctescat genus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. noxitudo.] 


IT is probable that the prologue to this play recounted the vic- 
tory of Pelops over Oenomaus, the marriage of Hippodamia, and 
the birth of Atreus (I). Atreus, who is the true type of a despot 
(II), is bitterly incensed at the return of his brother Thyestes 

L. ACCIUS. 117 

from exile, uninvited. Some signal punishment he must devise 
(III) for the man who had seduced his wife Aerope (IV, V), and 
had stolen the Golden Lamb, on which depended the prosperity of 
the kingdom (VI). Perhaps Atreus welcomed his brother with a 
suspicious cordiality, which would account for the warning against 
treachery, which Thyestes conveys to his sons who had accom- 
panied him (VII, VIII). Thyestes is bidden, as a special honour, 
to a royal banquet at which no other guest might be present (IX). 
Some eye-witness describes the preparation of the horrid meal (X) 
by the hands of the inhuman Atreus, whose crime had thrown all 
his brother's misdeeds in the shade (XI). The Sun turns back his 
car, and the thunder rolls angrily, and terrifies the Chorus of 
Mycenean citizens (XII). After the meal, Thyestes enquires of his 
sons' welfare ; and, when Atreus shows him their hands and feet, 
he prays that he may be allowed to bury them. 'The sons are 
entombed in the sire ' is the awful enigma that is hurled at him 
by Atreus (XIII). The unhappy father denounces his brother's 
broken faith, which Atreus denies he ever plighted (XIV) ; and 
aghast at the horrors in which he had taken an unconscious part 
(XV), Thyestes feels that all his hopes of advancement are ruined, 
and it only remains to him to hide himself in exile (XVI). 


Simul et Pisaea praemia arrepta a socru possedit sue. 

, 6. p. 698 P. socrus mane."] 


dum metuant. 

[SENECA, De Ira i. so. 4 ; Cic. De Off. i. 28.] 


Iterum Thyestes Atreum adtrectatum advenit, 
iterum iam adgreditur me et quietum exsiiscitat : 
major mihi moles, malus miscendumst malum, 
qui illius acerbum cor contundam et comprimam. 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 58.] 



Qui non sat habuit coniugem illexe in stuprum. 

[Cic. He Nat. Dear. 3. 26.] 

. . . quod re in summa summuni esse arbitror 
periclum, matres conquinari regias, 
eontaminari stirpem ac misceri genus. 

[Cic. I. c.] 

Adde hue quod mihi portento caelestum pater 
prodigium misit regni stabilimen niei, 
agnum inter pecudes aurea clariim coma 
quondam Thyestem clepere ausum esse e regia, 
qua in re adiutricem coniugem cepit sibi. 

[Cic. I. c.~] 

. . . vigilandumst semper : multae insidiae sunt bonis. 


Id quod multi invideant multique expetant inscitiast 
postulare, nisi laborem summa cum cura ecferas. 

[Cic. Pro Sest. 48 ; Pro Plane. 124.] 


ne cum tyranno quisquam epulandi gratia 
accumbat mensam aut eandem vescatur dapem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vesci.] 

partem vapore flammae, veribus in foco 

lacerta tribuit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lacerta neutr. gen.] 

L. AC C I US. 119 


Epularum fictor, scelerum fratris delitor. 

[PKISCIAN, 9. p. 873 P. delitor a delinere.] 


Sed quid tonitru turbida torvo 
conciissa repente aequora caeli 

sensimus sonere ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. sonere.] 


ATREUS. nati's sepulchre ipse est parens. 

[Cic. De Off. i. 28.] 

THYEST. fregisti fidem. 

ATREUS. Neque dedi neque do mfideli cuiquam . . . 

[Cic. De Off. 3. 28.] 

Ipsus hortatiir me frater lit meos malis miser 

manderem natos. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 4- 36.] 

Egone Argivum imperium attingam aut Pelopia dign6r 

quo me ostendam ? quod templum adeam ? quern 6re 

funesto alloquar? 

[NONIUS, s. v. dignatus.] 


WHEN Eriphyle, bribed by the gift of a necklace, had sent her 
husband Amphiaraus forth to certain death, in the war of the 
Seven against Thebes, the duty of punishing the treacherous wife 


devolved upon her sons Alcmaeon and Amphilochus. When, ten 
years later, the Epigoni gathered their avenging army again at 
Thebes, the oracle promised them victory if Alcmaeon should be 
chosen leader. His stern duty bade him remain at home, but 
Eriphyle, bribed by Thersander and Polynices, sends her son to 
the battle. Thebes is taken, and the heroes return. In obedience 
to his father's mandate, and in compliance with the oracle, Alc- 
maeon slays his mother ; and, like Orestes, he becomes at once 
the victim of the avenging Furies. The play opens with an alter- 
cation between Alcmaeon and Thersander, who urges the young 
hero, on whom so many eyes are fixed, to undertake the command 
(I) : his own Argives are impatient for the fray (II). Alcmaeon 
commends coolness and deliberation (III) : Thersander appears to 
philosophise upon the temperament of the brave man (IV). Am- 
philochus is now seen on the stage (V). He seems to have inherited 
something of his father's gift of divination. Alcmaeon, who burns 
to avenge his father, speaks, apparently, of some importunate 
apparition, which urges him on (VI) : he cannot understand his 
brother's plea of delay (VII). The ghost of Amphiaraus recounts 
thetreacheiy of his wife (VIII, ex inc. inc. fab. LXXVII Ribb.) ; at 
whose bidding he went forth, with death full in view (IX, ex inc. 
inc. fab. LXXVIII). Before the final catastrophe, Demonassa, Eri- 
phyle's daughter, has a foreboding of her mother's danger, and 
Eriphyle seeks to understand her anxiety (X, XI). Alcmaeon 
braces himself to the terrible deed. There is his mother, still 
wearing the fatal necklace (XII) ! He approaches her : she de- 
nounces his impiety (XIII, XIV) ; but the deed is done. Alcmaeon 
must seek expiation by burnt-offerings (XV), or by cleansing flood 
(XVI). But the curse of bloodguiltiness is upon him, and he must 
fly from the land. 


quibus oculis quisquam nostrum poterit illoruni optui 
vultus, quos iam ab armis anni percent . . . ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. porcet = prohibet.] 

Et nonne Argivos fremere bellum et velle vim vulgum 

vides ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. vulgus, masc. gen.~\ 

L. ACCIUS. 121 


Ita inperitus stupiclitate erumpit se, inpos consili. 

[NONIUS, s. v. stupiditas.] 

Sapimus animo, fniimur aninia : sine animo anima est 


[NONIUS, s. v. animus et anima.] 


Sed iam Amfilocum hue vadere cerno, et 
nobis datur bona pausa loquendi 

tempusque in castra revorti. 

[CHARIS. De Vers. Saturn*] 


Qui, nisi genitorem lilso, nullum meis dat finem miseriis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ulso = ultus fuero.] 

Fateor ; sed cur propter te haec pigreni aiit huius du- 

bitem parcere . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. pigrare = retinere.] 

. . . avarum est mulierum genus 

. . . auro vendidit vitam viri. 

[Cic. De Inv. i. 50.] 


prudens et sciens 
ad pestem ante oculos positam . . . 

[Cic. Ad Fam. 6. 6. 6.] 

Quid istiic, gnata unica, est, Demonassa, obsecro, 
quod me tanto expetens timidain e tecto excies? 

[CHARIS. De Vers. Saturu*] 



Eloquere propere ac meum hunc pavorem expectora. 

[NONIUS, s. v. expectorare.] 

Sed quid cesso ire ad earn ? em praesto est : camo vide 

collum gravem ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. collus, masc. grew.] 


Viden ut te inpietas sti'mulat nee moderat metus? 

[NoNius, s. v. modero, active.'] 


Age age amolire, ami'tte, cave vestem attigas ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. attigas = contigas.] 


Niinc pergam ut suppliciis placans caelitum aras ex- 


[NONIUS, s. v. supplicium = supplicatio.] 


Apud abundantem antiquam amnem et rapidas undas 


[NONIUS, s. v. am nis. femin. gren.] 


THIS title represents the /idx 7 ? t 1 TC "~ S vavfft of Horn. II. 13 ; but, in 
the drama of Accius, the death of Patroclus seems to precede the 
fighting at the ships. Patroclus has fallen, and Achilles burns for 
revenge. He is reminded that he has no armour in which to fight ; 
to which he replies that his courageous spirit is armour enough for 
him (I). His friends seek to dissuade him from his rash venture 
(II) : he has to remember that his very reputation is at stake (III). 

L. ACCWS. 123 

But Achilles cares only, he says, for the approval of the good (IV) : 
he will shake off this paralysing sorrow, which is no better than 
the helpless grief of (say) Patroclus' horse over his master (V). 
When Thetis comes with her Nereids and warns her son of his 
approaching doom, his mind can take in no other thought except 
that of vengeance (VI) : his friend's corpse is more in his eyes than 
whole heaps of slain (VII). When he is armed for the fray, the 
battle that begins at the ships spreads to the Scamander, and from 
thence to the town ; and none can resist this terrible warrior (VIII, 
IX), who is like a devouring flame in the pine forest (X, cp. K 20. 
490 foll.\ He returns from the field proud of his achievement 
(XI). His meeting with Hector was like that of two war-gods 
contending (XII) : nor can Achilles conceal his satisfaction in 
thinking that, though he has restored to Priam his son's corpse, 
there is no more a Hector in the Trojan host (XIII, inc. fab. XIII 


Ut mine cum animatus fero satis armatus sum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. anima = ira.] 


At contra, quantum obfiieris si victiis sies 
considera, et quo revoces summam exerciti. 

[NoNius, s. v. exerciti, gen. sing.\ 


Quod sf procedit neque te neque quemquam arbitror 
tuae paeniturum laiidis, quam ut serves vide. 

[NONIUS, s. v. paeniturum.] 


Probis probatum potius quam multfs fore. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pauci boni.] 


Item ac maestitiam mutam infantum quadrupedum . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. mutus.] 


Mors amici siibigit, quod mi est senium multo acer- 


[NONIUS, s. v. senium = mala aetas.] 


Nee perdoliscit fli'gi socios, morte campos contegi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fligi = adfligi.] 


Ab classe ad urbem tendunt, nee quisquam potest 
fulgentium armum armatus ardorem optui. 

[NONIUS, s. v. armum, gen. plurJ] 


Incursio ita erat acris. 

[CHARTS, i. p. 93 P.] 


Lucifera lampade abietem exurat lovis . . . 

[PRISCIAN, 6. p. 695 P. lovis, casu nominativo.J 


Nam Scamandriam undam salso sanctam obtexi sanguine, 
atque acervos alta in amni corpore explevi hostico. 

[NONIUS, s. v. amnis, gen. femj\ 


Mavortes armis duo congresses crederes. 

[CHARIS. i. p. 101 P. s. v. duo.] 

Immo enim vero corpus Priamo reddidi, Hectorem 


[Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 44.] 

L. ACCIUS. 125 


JASON has carried off Medea and the golden fleece from Colchis, 
and Aeetes is in hot pursuit of the fugitives. When the herdsmen 
on the banks of the Hister see the large bulk of the Argo the first 
ship that has ever appeared there they take it to be a huge sea- 
monster (I). As the vessel comes nearer they espy the young 
sailors aboard, and hear their melodious songs (II) ; and absorbed 
in wonder they leave their herds untended (III). 

Jason and Medea explain to this simple folk how ships came to 
be built : how, as men gradually left their savage ways (IV), they 
felt the desire to see the world, and ships must be made to brave 
the perils of the deep (V). The Scythian king looks with awe on 
the famous sorceress (VI). Medea begins to be suspicious of Jason, 
and there is a tone of bitterness in her allusion to all she has done 
for him taming the fire-breathing bulls (VII); and quelling the 
dragon, and the warriors that rose from the furrow (VIII, ex inc. 
inc. fab. XCIV) without her aid Jason would have been a lost man 
(IX). Aeetea then appears upon the stage, lamenting the death of 
his sons (X) ; his sorrows being echoed by the Chorus in a Canticum 
(XI). The terrible murder by Medea of one of her brothers, to gain 
time when she and Jason were being pursued, may belong to this 
drama (XII, ex inc. inc. fab. XCIII). 


tanta moles labitur 

fremibiinda ex alto ingenti sonitu et spiritu, 
prae se vindas volvit, vortices vi suscitat, 
ruit prolapsa, pelagus respargit reflat. 
ita dum interruptum credas nimbum volvier, 
dum quod sublime ventis expulsiim rapi . . , 
saxum avit procellis vel globosos turbines 
exi'stere ictos undis concursantibus : 
nisi quas terrestris pontus strages conciet, 
aut forte Triton fuscina evertens specus 
supter radices penitus undante in freto 
molem ex profundo saxeain ad caelum erigit. 

[Cic. De Nat. Dear. a. 35.] 



Sicxit lascivi atque alacres rostris perfremunt 
delphini, item alto mulcta Silvani melo 
consimilem ad auris cantum atque auditiim refert. 

[Cic. I, c.] 
Vagant, pavore pecuda in tumulis deserunt. 

A! qui nos pascet postea? 

[NONIUS, s. v. pecuda.] 

Primum ex immani victum ad mansuetum applicans . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. immane.] 

ut tristis turbinum 
toleraret hiemes, mare cum horreret fluctibus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. horridum.] 
Tun di'a Mede's, ciiius aditum exspectans pervixi usque 

adhuc ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. aditus.] 


Perite in stabulo frenos immittens feris. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ferus.] 

Non commemoro quod draconis saevi sopivi impetum, 
non quod domui vim taurorum et segetis armatae manus. 

[CHAKIS. 5. p. 252 P.] 

Exul inter hostis, exspes expers desertiis vagus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. exspes.] 
Pernici orbificor liberorum leto et tabificabili. 

[NONIUS, s. r. tabificabile.] 

L. ACCIUS. 127 

Fors dominatur, neque quicquam ulli 

proprium in vitast. 

[NONIUS, s. v. proprium = perpetuum.] 


postquam pater 

adpropinquat iamque paene ut comprehendatur parat, 
puerum interea optruncat membraque articulation dividit. 
perque agros passim dispergit corpus : id ea gratia, 
lit, dum nati dissipates artus captaret parens, 
ipsa interea effiigeret, ilium ut maeror tardaret sequi. 
sibi salutem ut familiari pareret parricidio. 

[Cic. De Nat. Dear. 3. 26.] 


OENEUS, father of Meleager, having neglected the due sacrifice to 
Diana, the goddess sent a huge wild-boar to ravage the harvest- 
fields of Calydon (I) . Meleager had married Cleopatra, the type of 
the quiet housewife, the complete contrast to Atalanta, a daring 
huntress, who claims for women a full right to join in the chase 
(II). Far better that, than to be a husband's drudge ! 1,111) 
Spartan maidens know how to use their womanhood ! V IV, ex inc. 
inc. fab. CXI Ribb.) So when Meleager sallies forth to attack the 
boar, Atalanta joins him and boldly confronts the savage beast (V) ; 
her spear being the first to touch it. When Meleager has slain the 
monster, the country folk joyfully greet him (VI) ; and he gives the 
crown of victory and the skin of the boar to Atalanta (VII). But 
the sons of Thestius, the brother of Althaea, Meleager's mother, rob 
the maiden of her prize : and when she appeals to Meleager, he 
slays some of the robbers, and declares that the prize is hers alone 
(VIII), and that the men are but cowards (IX, ex inc. inc. fab. 
CXIII Ribb.). This bloodshed wakes the Erinnys of the family, 
and Althaea, half in terror for herself, and half in indignation at 
the death of the Thestiadae (X, XI), brings from its concealment the 


brand, with the preservation of which the life of Meleager was 
mysteriously bound up, and commits it to the flames (XII). 
Meleager, as the brand consumes, feels the curse working in him 
(XIII), and Althaea, aghast at her doing, bids her servant use his 
best speed (XIV, XV) to go and quench the brand. But it is too 
late ! The mother feels the indelible shame she has brought on 
herself (XVI) ; and Meleager resigns himself to death (XVII). 


. . . frugis prohibet pergrandescere. 

[NONIUS, s. . grandire.] 


Vagent ruspantes silvas, sectantes feras. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ruspari = scrutari.] 


Quam invi'ta ancillans, dicto obediens viri. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ancillari.] 


Nihil horum similest apud Lacaenas virgines, 
quibus magis palaestra Eurota sol pulvis labor 
militia studio est quam fertilitas barbara. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 15.] 


Fn'git aper saetas rubore ex oculis fulgens flammeo. 

[Noxius, s. v. frigit] 


Gaiident currunt celebrant, herbam conferunt donant, 

pro se quisque cum corona clarum connectit caput. 

[NONIUS, s. f. herbam =palmam.] 

L. ACC1US. 129 


Cuius exuvias et coronam huic miineravit virgini. 

[NONIUS, s. v. munerare, cum dat.~\ 


Remanet gloria apud me ; exuvias di'gnavi Atalantae 


[NONIUS, s. v. dignavi = dignum duxi.] 


Vos enim, iuvenes, aninium geritis miiliebrem, ilia 

virgo viri. 

[Cic. De Off. i. 18.] 


timida eliminor, 
E clamore simul ac nota vox ad auris accidit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. eliminare.] 


Heii ! cor ira fervit caecum, amentia rapior ferorque. 

[NONIUS, s. v. i'ervik] 


Eum suae vitae finem ac fatis internecionem fore 
Meleagro, ubi torris esset interfectus flammeus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. torris.] 


Qupe vastitudo haec aiit unde invasi't mihi? 

[NONIUS, s. v. vastitudo = horror.] 


Cave lassitude poplitum cursum levet. 

[NONIUS, s. t. levare = miiiuere.] 



Laborem aut minuat itiner ingressum viae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. itiner.] 


Qui en't qui non me spernens, incilans probris, 
sermone indecorans turpi fama differet ? 

[NONIUS, s. u incilare.] 


Erat istuc virile, ferre advorsam fortunam facul. 

[NONIUS, s. v. facul.] 


THE play opens with the despatch of the embassy sent to attempt a 
reconciliation between Achilles and Agamemnon (Horn. H. 9). It also 
includes the going forth of Patroclus to battle. Antilochus, Nestor's 
son, the young friend of Achilles, seeks, even before the arrival of 
the embassy, to turn him from his obstinate purpose. But Achilles 
answers that his fixed resolve is not obstinacy but firmness (I). 
The ancient Phoenix admonishes his pupil (II) ; but Achilles de- 
fends himself (III), and expresses his readiness to leave Troy and 
return home (IV, cp. II. 9. 356 foil.) ; and he upbraids Ajax for no 
longer espousing his cause or standing at his side (V). Antilochus 
and Patroclus seem to be pleading on behalf of some one possibly 
Phoenix whose freedom had given Achilles offence (VI) : and the 
words of his rebuke are certainly severe (VII). As the news from 
the field grows more alarming, and the Myrmidons are impatient 
to take part in the fight, Patroclus tells Achilles the plain truth, 
that he will be looked upon as responsible for any disaster that 
may befall the Achaean host (VIII). It is doubtful whether this 
last fragment is to be referred to the ' Myrmidones ' or to the 
'Achilles ' ; if they are two distinct plays. 


Tu pertinaciam esse, Antiloche, hanc praedicas, 
ego p6rvicaciam aio et ea me uti volo : 

Z. ACCIUS. 131 

haec fortis sequitur, illam indocti possident. 
tu addis quod vitio est, demis quod laudi datur : 
nam pervicacem dici me esse et vincere 
perfacile patior, pertinacem nil moror. 

[NONIUS, s. r. pervicacia, pertinacia.] 


Irani infrenes, obstes animis, reprimas conndentiam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. confidentia = temeritas.] 


Ego me non peccasse plane ostendam aut poenas suf- 


[NONIUS, s. v. sufferre.] 


Classis trahere in salum me et vela ventorum aniniae 

immittere . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. anima = ventus.] 


Quodsi, ut decuit, stares mecum aut meus te maestaret 

iam diu inflammari Atridae navis vidissent suas. 

[NONIUS, s. r. maestare.] 


Nolo equidem : sed tu huic quern scis quali in te siet 
fidelitate, ob fidam naturam viri 


[NONIUS, s. v. fidelitas.] 


Tua honestitudo Danaos decepit diu. 

[NONIUS, s. v. honestitudo.] 
K 2 



Qua re alia ex crimine inimicorum effiigere possis, 


[NONIUS, s. v. delicare = explanare.] 


OENOMAUS, King of Pisa, father of the beautiful Hippodamia, 
having been warned that death would come to him from his son- 
in-law, kept at bay all his daughter's suitors by the condition that 
they should race against his famous team, and, if conquered, be 
beheaded. Pelops came to the ordeal, and at once won the heart 
of Hippodamia by his kingly beauty. The lovers bribe Myrtilus, 
the royal charioteer, to draw the linch-pin from the wheel, so that 
the car of Oenomaus was overthrown. Pelops wins Hippodamia, 
and puts his accomplice Myrtilus to death. Pelops, in the play, 
announces his intention of entering the lists (I) ; though he sees 
with horror the heads of the unsuccessful suitors at the palace 
gates (II). He assures Oenomaus that he need have no fear from 
the warning of the oracle (III), which seems to have been revealed 
to the king in the early hours of the morning, ' when dreams are 
true ' (IV). But Oenomaus felt that some malign influence was 
sapping his power, like the undermining waters that fret the base 
of the cliff (V). Great preparations are made for the contest, and 
a solemn sacrifice to the gods performed (VI). Then the race 
begins, and as Oenomaus gallops forward, we may imagine that 
Pelops sends after him the warning cry that his hours are num- 
bered (VII). 


Coniiigium Pisis petere, ad te itiner tendere . . . 

[Nonius, s. f. itiner.] 


Horrida honestitiido Europae principum prima ex loco . . . 

[NONIUS, s. i\ honestitudo. ] 

L. ACC1US. 133 


Ego ut essem adfinis tibi, non ut te extinguerem, 
tuam petii gnatam : niimero te expugnat timor. 

[FESTUS, etc., numero = nimium. ] 


Forte ante auroram, radiorum ardentum indicem, 
cum e somno in segetem agrestes cornutos cient, 
ut rorulentas terras ferro fiimidas 
proscindant glebasque arvo ex molli exsiiscitent . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. segetem.] 


Saxum id facit angustitatem, et sub eo saxo exuberans 

scatebra fluviae radit rupem. 

[NONIUS, s. x. angustitatem.] 


Vos ite actutum atque opere magno edicite 
per urbem, ut omnes qui arcem Alfeumque accolunt 
cives ominibus faustis augustam adhibeant 
faventiam, ore obscena dictu segregent. 

[NONIUS, s. v. faventia : obscenum.] 


Atque hanc postremam solis usuram cape ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. usura.l 


IN this play Accius geems to have borrowed freely from Aeschylus, 
while he follows the general outline of the Sophoclean drama, and 
introduces details from Euripides : as, for example, in the opening 
scene, where the canticum is sung by a chorus of sailors who have 


accompanied Ulysses and Diomede to Lemnos (I). Ulysses replies 
by describing, in similar verse, the island scenery, as he knew it 
long ago (II). A Lemnian comes on the stage, and Ulysses ques- 
tions him about the abode of Philoctetes (III), and learns how he 
clothes and feeds himself (IV), and how wild and dangerous is his 
temper (V, VI). Philoctetes describes, either in monologue or to 
some friend, his painful sufferings (VII), his lonely home that 
rings with his cries (VIII), and his trust to his arrows for his 
daily food (IX) ; a use of weapons which, as a warrior, he despises 
(X). He espies and accosts Ulysses, whom he does not recognise, 
and whose arrival surprises him (XI) ; and, though he is ashamed 
to be found in his condition of savagery and squalor (XII), he con- 
ducts him to his cavern (XIII), and is drawn on to tell him the 
adventures of his companions in arms. He enquires about the 
Arms of Achilles, and bitterly regrets the award (XIV). The wily 
Ulysses seeks to win his confidence, and to gain possession of the 
coveted arrows. The arrival at this crisis of a Trojan embassy 
with tempting proposals, intending to conciliate Philoctetes and to 
rob him of his arrows, has half persuaded the hero (XV) ; but he 
remembers that it is a Phrygian Trojan who has been the source of 
all his woes (XVI). After a long struggle with conflicting feelings, 
the patriotism and self-respect of Philoctetes carry the day ; and 
he turns aside from the temptations offered by the Trojans, and, in 
spite of his suffering (XVII) he accompanies the Greeks on board 
their ship. 


Incliite, parva prodite patria, 
nomine celebri claroque potens 
pectore, Achivis classibus ductor, 
gravis Dardaniis gentibus ultor. 
Laertiade ! 

[APULEIUS, De Deo Socr. 24 : Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 10.] 


Lemnfa praesto 
litora rara, et celsa Cabirum 
deliibra tenes, misteria quae 

L. ACCIUS. 135 

pristina castis concepta sacris . . . 
Volcania iam templa sub ipsis 
collibus in quos delatus locos 
dicitur alto ab limme caeli . . . 
nemus expirante vapore vides, 
unde ignis cluet mortalibus clam 
divisus : eum dictiis Prometheus 
clepsisse dolo poenasque lovi 
fato expendisse supremo. 

[VAKRO, L. L. 7. n M. : Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 10.] 


. . . ubi habet? urbe agrone? 

[NONIUS, s. v. habere = habitare.] 


Configit tardus celeris stans volatilis. 
pro veste pinnis membra textis contegit. 

[Cic. De Fin. 5. n.] 


Quem neque tueri contra neque fan' queas. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 55.] 


. . . cui potestas si detur, tua 
cupienter malis membra discerpat suis. 

[NoNius, s. v. cupienter.] 


E viperino morsu venae viscerum 
veneno inbutae taetros cruciatiis cient. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 14, 1 
. iaceo in tecto limido 


quod eiulatu questu gemitu fremitibus 
resonando mutum flebilis voces refert. 

[Cic. 1. c.] 


Keciproca tendens nervo equino concita 


[VARRO, L. L. 7. 80 M.] 


. . . pinnigero, non armigero in corpore 
tela exercentur haec abiecta gloria. 

[Cic. Ad Fam. 7. 33.] 


Quis tu es mortalis, qui in deserta et tesqua te adportes 


[VARRO, L. L. 7. n.] 


quod te obsecro aspernabilem 
ne haec taetritudo mea me inculta faxsit . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. taetritudo.] 


Contempla hanc sedem, in qua ego novem hiemes saxo 

stratus pertuli. 

[NONIUS, s. v. contempla.] 


heu Mulciber ! 
arma ergo ignavo invicta es fabricates manu. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. 5. 2.] 


Ipsam Frygiam mitiorem esse aio immani Gra^cia. 

[NONIUS, s. v. immanis.] 

L. ACCIUS. 137 


Pari dyspari, si inpar esses tibi, ego nunc non esseni 

[QUINTIL. 5. 10. 84.] 


Agite, ac vulnus ne succusset gressus caute ingrediruini. 

[NONIUS, s. v. succussare.] 


THE prologue opens like that in the Phoenissae of Euripides (I). 
Accius adopts the form of the story which represents Oedipus as 
making over the sovereignty to his sons, to be enjoyed by each in 
alternate years (II). He has pronounced no curse upon them ; the 
arrangement he proposes is to secure concord (III), and to give each 
son a share of his father's power (IV). After his year on the throne, 
Eteocles refuses to make way for Polynices. Polynices protests ; he 
has not enjoyed the privileges which his father designed for him 
(V). Eteocles replies by a brutal dismissal of his brother (VI) ; 
who, in quitting the city, bids farewell to all its holy places (VII). 
Thebes must be saved (so the seers say) by the sacrifice of one of 
Creon's sons not Haemon the elder (VIII), who is betrothed to 
Antigone, but Menoeceus. Thebes is besieged, and we see some 
one of the royal house, perhaps Haemon, superintending the de- 
fences, and looking to the wounded (IX). The drama ends with 
Creon's command to Oedipus to quit the city (X) ; and the bitter 
complaint of the old man at this crowning hardship, which robs 
him of all he has (XI). 


Sol qui micantem candido curru atque equis 
flammam citatis fervido ardore explicas, 
quianam tarn adverse augurio et inimico omine 
telis radiatum lumen ostentas tuum ? 

[PmsciAN, De Metr. Terent. p. 1325 P.] 



Vici'ssitatemque imperitandi tradidit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vicissitas.] 


ne horum dividiae discordiae 
dissipent disturbent tantas et tarn opimas civiuni 


[NONIUS, s. v. dividiae = dissensiones.J 


Natiis uti tute sceptrum poteretiir patris 


[NONIUS, s. v. potiri cum accus.] 


Num. pariter videor patriis vesci praemiis? 

[NONIUS, s. v. vesci.] 


Egredere, exi, ecfer te, elimina urbe . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. eliminare = exire.] 


delubra l caelitum, arae, sanctitudines ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. sanctitudo.] 



Ab dracontis stirpe armata exortus genere antiquior. 

[NONIUS, s. v. antiquior.] 


Obit nunc vestra moenia, omnis saiicios 

convfsit, ut curentur diligentius. 

[NONIUS, s. v. saucii.] 

1 Cp. Eur. Phoen. 631. 

L. ACCIUS. 139 


lussi't proficisci exilium quovis gentium, 
ne scelere tuo Thebani vastescant agri. 

[NONIUS, s. r. vastescant.] 


. . . quae ego cuncta esse fluxa in mea re crepera 


[NONIUS, s. v. crepera = dubia.] 



THE scene opens in the camp at Ardea, changing to the house of 
Lucretia. The last scene is the Roman Forum. KingTarquin, while 
besieging Ardea, has a dream, which he recounts to his Seer (I). Tar- 
quin had put to death the elder brother of L. Junius Brutus, and the 
younger brother only saved his own life by playing the part of a fool, 
and so diverting the king's suspicion. The Seer interprets the dream 
(II). Then must follow in order the drinking-bout in the tent of 
Sextus ; the challenge about the best wife ; the visit to Collatia ; the 
proof of Lucretia's modest worth ; the guilty passion of Sextus ; the 
outrage on Lucretia ; the terrible confession of the innocent wife 
(III), and her suicide ; the oath of Brutus, and his speech in the 
Forum, in which he recalls the loyalty of Servius Tullius (IV). [This 
line Cicero (Pro Sest. 58) declares to have been applied to him, amid 
thunders of applause in the theatre, where the play was being 
acted : ' nominatim sum appellatus in Bruto.'] The last fragment 
gives the establishment of consuls, and the intention of the offico 



Quom iam quieti corpus nocturno impetu 

dedi sopore placans artus languidos, 

visum est in soninis pastorem ad me adpellere 

pecus lanigerum exinria pulchritudine, 

duos consanguineos arietes inde eligi 

praeclarioremque alterum immolare me. 

deinde eius germanum cornibus conitier 

in me arietare, eoque ictu me ad casum dari : 

exi'm prostratum terra, graviter saucium, 

resupfnum in caelo contueri maximum 

min'ficum facinus : dextrorsum orbem flammeum 

radiatum solis liquier cursii novo. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 22. ] 


Kex, quae in vita usurpant homines, c6gitant curant 

quaeque agunt vigilantes agitantque, ea si cui in somno 

minus mirum est, sed df rem tantam haut temere im- 
provise offerunt. 

proin vide, ne quern tu esse hebetem deputes aeque ac 

is sapientia munitum pectus egregie gerat 

teque regno expellat : nam id quod de sole ostensum 
est tibi 

populo commutationem rerum portendit fore 

perpropinquam. haec bene verruncent populo ! nam 
quod dexterum 

cepit cursum a laeva signum praepotens, pulcherrime 

nuguratum est rem Komanam piiblicam summam fore. 

[Cic. I c.] 

L. ACCIUS. 141 


Nocte intempesta nostram devenit donium. 

[VARRO, L. L. 6. 7.] 

Tiillius qui libertatem civibus stabili'verat. 

[Cic. Pro Sest. 58.] 


. . . qui recte consulat, consul cluat. 

[VARRO, L. L, 5. 80 M.] 


THIS play records the victory of the two consuls, Q. Fabius Maxi- 
mus Rullianus and P. Decius Mus over the joint armies of the 
Samnites and Gauls, at Sentinum, B. c. 295. It contrasts the cool, 
deliberate temper of Fabius with the impetuosity of Decius, ' fero- 
cior et aetate et vigore animi ' (Liv. 10. 28) ; and describes the 
solemn act by which Decius, following the example of his father in 
the Latin War (B. c. 340), devotes himself for the salvation of the 
Roman army. The scene opens with the camp at night : ' All 
well ' is reported (I). A scout comes in from Clusium, and Fabius 
questions him as to the disposition of the hostile troops (II). In 
forming the line of battle, Decius is posted opposite the Gauls 
'.III). A hind pursued by a wolf runs between the lines; the 
hind approaches the Gauls and is slain ; the wolf comes to the 
Romans. The pontiff Livius offers sacrifice, and prays for a happy 
fulfilment of the portent (IV). But the offerings seem less pro- 
pitious for Decius (V:. Fabius seeks to calm the ardour of Decius 
(JVI) ; but he answers impatiently ^VII). The Gauls march forward 
with their wild war-cries (VIII) ; and with their scythe-armed 
chariots throw the Roman squadrons into confusion. Decius takes 
his stern resolve (IX) : he bids the pontiff dictate to him the for- 
mula of devotion, as his father used it (X) ; and dashing into the 
hosts of the enemy, he falls. But the day is won for Rome ; and 
Fabius makes over the Gallic camp to the troops of Decius, who 
had done such signal service V XI). 



Nil -Deque pericli neque tumulti est, quod sciam. 

[NoNiu^, s. v. tumulti.] 


Dice, summa ubi perduellum est ? quorsum aut quibus 
a partibus 

gliscunt ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. gliscere.] 


Vim Gallicam obduc contra in acie exercitum : 
lue patrium hostili fusum sanguen sanguine. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sanguen.] 


Te sancte venerans precibus, invicte, mvoco 
portenta ut populo patriae verruncent bene. 

[NONIUS, s. v. verruncent = vertant.] 


Et mine quo deorum segnitas? ardet focus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. segnitas.] 


Quod periti sumus in vita atque usu callemus magis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. callet = scit.] 


Fateor : sed saepe ignavavit fortem in spe expectatio. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ignavavit = ignavum fecit.] 


. . . Caleti voce canora 
fremitu peragrant minitabiliter. 

[NONIUS, s. v. minitabiliter.] 

L. ACCIUS. 143 


Patrio exemplo et me dicabo atque animam devoro hos- 


[NONIUS, s. v. devoro (?) = devovero.] 


Quibus rem summam et patriam nostram quondam 

adauctavit pater. 

[NONIUS, s. i: adauctavit.] 


Castra haec vestrum est : optime essis meritus a nobis . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. castra femin. gen.~\ 



(A HISTORY of Greek and Roman poetry, with special attention 
to dramatic art, and treating also of the poet's own times. The 
majority of the fragments seem to be in Sotadean metre.) 


THE honour paid by Achilles to Nestor (I) ; a rationalistic 
interpretation of the vulture of Prometheus (II) 


sapientiaeque invictae 
gratia atque honoris patera Nestorem mactavit 


[Nojfius, s. v. mactare = honorare.] 



Num ergo aquila, ita ut hice praedicant, sciciderat pectus ? 

[AuL. GELL. 6. 9. 16.] 


Certain faults common in dramatic performances (I) ; objections 
to the Euripidean chorus (II). 


Ut dum brevitatem velint consequi verborum. 
aliter ac sit rellatum redhostiant responsum. 

[NoKius, s. v. redhostit = reddit.] 


sed Euripidis quf choros temerius 

in fabulis . . . 

[NONIUS, n. v. temerius.] 


A description of the equipment of actors in tragedy. 

Actoribus manuleos et baltea et machaeras. 

[NONIUS, s. v. balteum, neut.] 


A fragment from some general sketch of poetry. 

Nam quae Varia haec genera poematorum, Baebi, 
quamque longe distincta alia ab aliis sint, nosce. 

[CHARIS. a. v. poematorum.] 

L. ACCIUS. 145 


Accius was the first to examine into the question of the authen- 
ticity of the plays currently assigned to Plautus. He rejects 
several that were commonly received : 

Nam nee Gemini lenones, nee Condalium, nee 

Plauti anus, nee Bis compressa, nee Soeotia l unquam 

fiiit, neque adeo Agroecus neque Commorientes 

Macci Titi. 

[AuL. GELL. 3. 3. 9.] 

1 Boeotia. Vid. sup. sub Aquilio, p. 102. 




(Atheism and immorality.) 
Tubulus si Lucius unquam, 
si Lupus aut Carbo, Neptuni films (?) putasset 
esse deos, tarn periurus, tarn impurus fuisset ? 

[Cic. De Nat. Deor. i. 23.] 

Lucius Hostihus Tubulus, praetor B.C. 142, 'cum quaestionem 
inter sicarios exercuisset, ita aperte cepit pecunias ob rem iudi- 
candam ut anno proximo P. Scaevola, tribunus plebis, ferret ad 
plebem, vellentne de ea re quaeri,' Cic. De Fin. 2. 16. Tubulus 
went into exile, and, being brought back to trial, poisoned himself. 
Cp. ' Cui Tubuli nomen non odio est ? ' Cic. De Fin. 5. 22. 

Lupus, perhaps L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus, consul B. c. 157, 
afterwards convicted, ' repetundarum reus.' Cf. Hor. Sat. 2. i. 68 
' famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus' : Pers. Sat. i. 115. 

Carbo. There were three bad brothers, C., Cn., and M. Carbo. 
The allusion here seems to be to C. Papirius Carbo, the friend of 
Tib. Gracchus, suspected of being concerned in the murder of 
Scipio Africanus. Carbo (tribune B.C. 131, consul 120) was charged 
with some crime by the young orator L. Licinius Crassus, and with- 
out awaiting a trial, poisoned himself. 


Neptuni films. Cp. Aul. Gell. 15. 21 < ferocissimos et immanes et 
alienos ab omni humanitate, tamquam e mari genitos, Neptuni 
filios dixerunt.' If the reading filius putasset is right, flius must be 
scanned as a disyllabic. 


(A day in Some in the time of Lucilius?) 
Nunc vero a mani ad noctem festo atque profesto, 
toto ibidem pariterque die populusque patresque 
iactare indu foro se omnes, decedere nusquam ; 
uni se atque eidem studio omnes dedere et arti, 
verba dare ut caute possint, pugnare dolose ; 
blanditia certare, bonum simulare virum se ; 
insidias facere, ut si hostes sint omnibus omnes. 

[LACTANT. Inst. 5. 9. 20.] 


(Scaevola's ridicule of the affectation of Greek manners and speech % 

Graecum te Albuci quam Romanum atque Sabinum, 
municipem Ponti, Tritani, centurionum, 
praeclarorum hominum ac primorum signiferumque, 
maluisti dici. graece ergo praetor Athenis, 
id quod maluisti te, cum ad me accedis, saluto ; 
' X a ~ l p f ,' inquam, 'Tite!' ; lictores turma omnis cohorsque 
' xaipt Tite ! ' hinc hostis mi Albucius, hinc inimicus. 

[Cic. De Fin. i. 3.] 

Titus Albucius is described by Cicero (Brut. 35) as ' doctus Graecis 
vel potius paene Graecus . . . fuit autem Athenis adulescens, per- 
fectus Epicureus evaserat.' Q. Mucius Scaevola, on his way to his 
province as propraetor in Asia, B.C. 121, meets Albucius at Athens, 
and in recognition of his Greek tastes salutes him ' Graeco more ' ; 
his whole retinue taking up and carrying on the joke. 
L 2 


Ponti. Cp. Cic. De Senect. 10, l ne vos quidem T. Pontii centurionis 
vires habetis.' Tritani, unknown. 


(A further caricature of the style of Albuoius.} 
Quam lepide Xefts compostae ut tesserulae omnes 
arte pavimento atque emblemate vermiculato ! 

[Cic. Or. 44. 149.] 

Cicero, in this passage, deprecates over-nicety in the combination 
of words : ' nam esset cum infinitus turn puerilis labor, quod apud 
Lucilium scite exagitat in Albucio Scaevola.' tesserulae, the small 
cubes forming a 'tessellated pavement.' arte, 'skilfully.' em- 
blemate vermiculato, ' intertwined mosaic work.' eu@\r/{M is anything 
'inlaid.' vermiculatus is that which runs in twining, 'wriggling,' 
patterns, as distinct from geometrical lines. 


(Scaevola refers to his son-in-law, L. Licinius Crassus, the most 
famous Roman orator lie/ore Cicero's time.) 

Crassum habeo generum, ne rhetoricoteros tu seis ! 

[Cic. De Orat. 3. 43.] 
rhetoricoteros, i.e. pr/ropiKwrfpos. 


See Porphyr. ad Hor. Sat. i. 5. i : ' Lucilio hac satura aemulatur 
Horatius iter suum a Roma Brundisium usque describens, quod et 
ille in tertio libro fecit, prirno a Roma Capuam usque et inde fretum 


(Orders are given to measure off" the road exactly.} 

degrumabis uti castris mensor facit olim. 

[NONIUS, s.v. grumae.] 

degrumabis, from 'gruma ' or ' groma,' a surveyor's pole. 



(Distance to Capua, and from Capua to the Straits.) 
Millia porro bis quina octogena videbis 
commoda, de Capua quinquagiiita atque ducenta. 

[NONIUS, s. v. commodum. ] 

commoda is interpreted by Nonius as ' integra ' = ' full,' ' com- 
plete.' The readings have been variously altered to harmonise the 
numbers with actual geography. 


(The rough work begins near Setia, on a mountain ridge risiny from 
the Pomptine marshes.) 

Verum haec ludus ibi susque omnia deque fuerunt, 
susque ea deque fuere. inquam, omnia, ludus iocusque ; 
illud opus durum, ut Setinum accessimus finem ; 
myiXtnai monies, Aetnae ocres, asperi Athones. 

[AuL. GELL. 16. 9.] 

Susque deque, lit. both up and down ' ; i.e. as much up as down, 
* about on a level.' So Gellius,L c. ' significat autem " susque deque 
ferre " animo aequo esse, et quod accidit non magni pendere,' etc. 
Cp. Cic. Att. 14. 6. i ' de Octavio susque deque.' alyt\iiroi. The 
genuine Greek form is alyl\af/, Horn. II. 9. 15. The word may be con- 
nected with aiyis, ' storm.' ocm, the Gk. o/c/>ir= ' mons confragosus. ' 


(The roads are bad.) 

Praeterea omne iter est hoc labosum atque lutosum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. labosum.] 

Labosum may be connected with lubes. Lamosus from lama, Hor. 
Ep. i. 13. 10, is a likely emendation. 


(The donkeys are overloaded.) 

Mantica cantheri costas gravitate premebat. 

[POBPHYR. ad Hor. Sat. i. 6. 106.] 



(They take ship and coast along Lucania.} 

Hinc media remis Palinurum pervenio nox. 

[SERV. ad Verg. Aen. 10. 244.] 
nox, pro ' nocte,' Serv. I. c. 


(Thick weather comes on, and soundings are taken.} 
Hinc catapeiratera puer deorsum dedit, unctum 
plumbi pauxillum raudus Unique mataxam. 

[IsiD. Etym. 19. 4.] 

Catapeiratera, cp. KaTaTreiprjTrjpir], Hdt. 2. 5 = ' sounding-line '. The 
raudus (lump of metal) is greased, in order that it may bring up, 
when it is raised, shells, sand, or the like, to show the nature of 
the bottom. Mataxa (metaxa) is properly ' raw silk ' ; here used 
generally for a cord*. 


(It is uncertain to what look the next fragment is to be referred; but 
it forms a good prelude to the general scope of the fourth as a protest 
against luxury and crime.} 

Virtus, Albine, est pretium persolvere veruni 
quis in versamur, quis vivimus rebus, potesse ; 
virtus est homini scire id quod quaeque valet res ; 
virtus seire homini rectum utile quid sit honestum, 
quae bona quae mala item, quid inutile, turpe, inhon- 

estum ; 

virtus, quaerendae finem rei scire modumque ; 
virtus, divitiis pretium persolvere posse ; 
virtus, id dare quod re ipsa debetur honori ; 
hostem esse atque inimicum hominum morumque 


C. LUC I LI US. 151 

contra defensoreni hominum morumque bonorum, 
magnificare hos, his bene velle, his vivere amicum ; 
commoda praeterea patriai prima putare, 
deinde parentum, tertia iam postremaque nostra. 

[LACTANT. Inst. 6. 5. 2.] 

(The protest of Laelius the Wise' against gluttony.) 
O lapathe, ut iactare, nee es satis cognitus qui sis ! 
in quo Laelius clamores CTO^OS ille solebat 
edere, compellans gumias ex ordine nostros. 

[Cic. De Fin. a. 8.] 

Lapathe, i sorrel,' how thou art lauded to the skies, and yet enough 
is not known of what you really are ! ' It is easy to talk finely 
about a light, vegetable diet, but who strictly keeps to it ? in quo. 
perhaps ' over which,' i.e. on the occasion of his own meal of sorrel. 
Laelius, surnamed Sapiens, the intimate friend of the younger 
Scipio Africanus. In his honour, Cicero wrote his treatise ' Laelius 
sive de Amicitia.' From the teaching of Diogenes and Panaetius he 
had learned to accept the doctrines of the Stoic school, compellans 
= ' rebuking.' gumias =' gluttons.' 


(Publius Gallonius is familiar to us from Horace, Sat, 2. 2. 47.) 
' O Publi, o gurges, Galloni, es homo miser ' inquit ; 
cenasti in vita numquam bene, cum omnia in ista 
consumis squilla atque acupensere cum decumano. 

[Cic. ibid.'] 

Cum cum, both are to be taken as conjunctions, as in Lucilius, 
'cum pacem peto cum placo cum adeo et cum adpello meam.' de- 
cumano, ' huge ' ; as fluctus decumanus. 


(The gladiators Aeseminus and Pacidianus.) 
Aeserninus fuit Flaccorum munere quidam 
Samnis, spurcus homo, vita ilia dignus locoque; 


cum Pacideiano componitur, optimus multo 
post homines natos gladiator qui fuit unus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. spurcum. ] 

Cicero, Ad Quint. Fr. 3. 4, says : ' cum Aesernino Samnite Pacidi- 
anus comparatus viderer, auriculam fortasse mordicus abstulisset.' 
Aeserninus is armed as a ' Samnite ' with the ' winged helmet, 
scutum, ocreae, and manica.' The pair is matched (componitur) at 
some show (munere) ; and we may suppose that Aeserninus bit off 
his opponent's ear. unus = ' beyond all others,' as ' rem unam 
omnium difficillimam,' Cic. Brut. 6. 25. 


(Pacidiunus expresses his hatred of Aeserninus.} 

4 Occidam ilium equidem et vincam, si id quaeritis, ' 

inquit ; 

' verum illud credo fore : in os prius accipiam ipse 
quam gladium in stomacho furiae ac pulmonibus sisto. 
odi hominem, iratus pugno ; nee longius quicquam 
nobis, quam dextrae gladium dum accommodet alter : 
usque adeo studio atque odio illius ecferor ira. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 3. 21.] 

furiae = 'madman' (al. furf). Cp. Cic. Pro Sest. 14. 33 of Clodius, 
'ilia furia ac pestis patriae.' longius, i.e. ' more wearisome ': he 
can hardly wait. 


(Lucilius complains of the neglect of a friend, v:lio failed to visit him 
when he teas sick.*) 

Quo me habeam pacto, tametsi non quaeris, docebo ; 
quando in eo numero mansti, quo in maxima nunc est 
pars hominum. 
ut periisse velis, quern visere nolueris cum 


debueris. hoc ' nolueris ' et ' debueris ' te 

si minus delectat quod rexviov Isocratium est 

A7/ja>6Vjque simul totum et o-vnnfipaKtuSes, 

non operam perdo. [AUL. GELL. 18. 8.] 

Gellius, 1. c. adds this comment : ' o/jioioTt\evTa et laoKaraKrjKTa et 
napiffa et dfjinio-nrwra, ceteraque huiusmodi scitamenta quae isti 
airtip6Ka\oi, qui se Isocraticos videri volunt,. in conlocandis verbis 
immodice faciunt et rancide, quam sint insubida et inertia et 
puerilia, facetissime hercle significat in quinto saturarum Lucilius.' 

mansti : if this reading is correct, the meaning is, ' you continue to 
be like the rest of the world ' : if mansi, 1 1 continue to be, in spite of 
my illness, of no more interest to you than the rest of the world.' 
TtXviov, so Scaliger : al. art-xyov et I. avpntipaiciwSis, ' altogether 
childish.' The general sense is, 'if you think the jingle of "nolueris" 
and " debueris " a mark of bad taste, I take no further trouble,' 


(A miter '$ passion for his money-bet ;/.) 

Cui neque iumentum est nee servus nee comes ullus, 
bulgam et quicquid habet numorum secum habet ipse : 
cum bulga cenat, dormit, lavat ; oinnis in unast 
spes homini bulga : bulga haec devincta lacertost. 

[NONIUS, s. v. bulga.] 
bulga, & Gallic word ; French, bougette ; our budget. 


(A word not to be got into an hexameter line.') 

servorum ast festus dies hie, 
quern plane hexametro versu non dieere possis. 

[PORPHYR. ad Hor. Sat. i. 5. 87.] 

The last days of the Saturnalia were called the Sigillaria, when 
friends made presents of little images (sigttla, siyna) to one another. 
Ausonius, Ed.fer. Rom. 52, calls the festival l festa Sigillorum.' 



( The difference, between poema and poesis.) 

Nunc haec quid valeant, quidque huic intersiet illud 
cognosces, primum hoc quod dicimus esse poema 
pars est parva poesis ; id est, epigrammata, porro 
disticha, epistula item quaevis non magna poemast. 
ilia poesis opus totum, ut tota Ilias summast 
una poesis, ut Annales Enni. Atque si hoc unumst, 
est maius multo quam quod dixi ante poe'ma. 
quapropter dico : nemo si culpat Homerum, 
perpetuum culpat, neque, quod dixi ante, poesin : 
versum unum culpat, verbum, enthymema, locumve. 

[NONIUS, s. v. poesis, poema.] 

The general sense is plain, that a poema is a short composition, 
and only the fragment of a poesis. But the readings are most un- 
certain. I have filled up a lacuna, as suggested by Bahrens, and 
followed, generally, Wordsworth's ed. for the rest, enthymema, 
locumve, 'a (single) reflection or one passage.' 


(On the needlessness of writing a vowel double, in order to show that 
it is long.) 

A primast : hinc iiicipiam, et quae nomina ab hoc sunt, 
' AA geminum longa, A brevis syllaba.' nos tamen 


hoc faciemus, et uno eodemque, ut dicimus, pacto 
scribemus pacem, placide, lanum, aridum, acetum ; 

r Apes "Apes Graeci ut faciunt. 

[SCAUKUS, De Orthograph.~] 

Scaurus explains the passage : ' Accius ' (L., the tragic poet) 
' geminatis vocalibus scribi natura longas syllabas voluit.' T Apey *A/>es, 
Horn. II. 5. 31 : see also Martial 9. 12 ' Et Graeci quibus est nihil 


negatum, | et quos'A/xs "Apes deeet sonare.' Lucilius denies the use 
of this duplication of the vowel, and would write d and a identical, 
depending only on the pronunciation to distinguish them, ut dici- 


( In the plnral we may write EI, in the gen. of the declension ; in such 
datives as ILLI only the single i.) 

lam 'puerei venere' E postremum facito atque I, 
ut pueri plures fiant. I si facis solum, 
'pupilli, pueri, Lucili,' hoc unius fiet. 
' hoc illi factum est uni ' , tenue hoc facies I ; 

'haec illei fecere.' addes E, ut pinguius fiat. 

[VELL. LONG. 56 K. et L.] 


( The Homeric Cyclops.) 

Multa homines portenta in Homeri versibus ficta 
monstra putant : quorum in primis Polyphemus du- 


Cyclops longus pedes, et porro huic maius bacillum 
quam malus navi in corbita maximus ulla. 

[NONIUS, s. v. corbita.] 

See Horn. Odys. g. 167 foil. His club (*&. 319 foil.) is described as 
ocraov 0' larov vrjus ftiKoaopoto fif\aivr}s, tyopridos tvpdrjs, which last 
words are the equivalent of corbita. 


(Only children are frightened at goblins.) 
Terriculas Lamias, Fauni quas Pompiliique 
instituere Numae, tremit, has insomnia ponit : 
ut pueri infantes credunt signa omnia ahena 
vivere et esse homines, sic isti somnia ficta 


vera pntant, credunt .signis cor inesse in ahenis. 
pergula pictorum, veri nihil, omnia ficta ! 

[LACTANT. I. 22. 13. j 

insomnia fBahrens conj. for hie omnia) = visions of the night. 
pergula, 'studio.' 


(The metres in this book, probably the earliest of the saturae, are mostly 
trochaic tetrameter catalectic. Lucilhis writes for ' the general 
public,' not up to the level of the most cultivated, nor down to the 
requirements of the ignorant.) 

. . . nec doctissimis ; nam Gaium 

Persium haec legere nolo, lunium Congum volo. 

[Cic. De Orat. 2. 6 : PLIN. Praef. N. H. 7.] 

Persium non euro legere, Laelium Decumum volo. 


The reading Manium of Pliny for Gaium is wrong ; if, that is, 
Persium be right. C. Persius is spoken of by Cic., Brut. 26. 99, as 
litteratus homo.' The other names must represent the average 


(The strength of Rome comr* out in a long campaign.} 

Ut Romanus populus victus vi et superatus proeliis 
saepe est multis, bello vero numquam, in quo sunt 


[NONIUS, s. r. bellum et proelium.] 


(Lncilius does his best for his readers.) 
Rem populi salutem fictis versibus Lucilius, 


qiiibus potest, inpertit totumque hoc studiose et sedulo. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fingere, componere.] 


(He feels that life is short, and he must uxe it to the full.} 
Ciini sciam nihil esse in vita proprium mortal! datum, 
iam qua tempestate vivo XPV TW a d me recipio. 

[Nonius, s. v. proprium, i. e. perpetuum.] 

Xprjaiv or chresin is Lachmann's emendation for the reading certe 
sine of MSS. 


(He never looks askance at other men's treasures.) 

Niilli me invidere, non strabonem fieri saepius 

deliciis me istorum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. strabones.] 


( The simulated grief of hired mourners.) 

Ut mercede quae conductae flent alieno in fiinere 
praeficae multum et capillos scindunt et clamant magis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. praeficae.] 


{He plays with the Empedoclean doctrine (Lucret. i. 714 foil.) of the 
four elements, by making an absurd application of it.) 

4 Quapropter certum est facere contra ac persequi 

et nomen deferre hominis ' ' hoc cum feceris, 

cum ceteris reus una tradetiir Lupo.' 

' non aderit ' ' dpxals hominem et oroi^et'otf simul 

privabit : igni ciim et aqua interdixerit 

duo habet arotx^a ' ' at friiitur anima et corpore 


yfj corpus, anima est Tn/ev^a' ' posterioribus 
orotxeiW, si id maluerit, privabit tamen.' 

[NONIUS, s. v. deferre.] 

A man is summoned for trial before the praetor Lupus. He 
won't turn up. Then Lupus will proceed, by ' interdictio,' to de- 
prive him of two elements, fire and water. But he has the two 
other elements in his own body earth and air. Well, the praetor 
will next deprive him of these ; and that will complete the affair. 



THE fragments of Atta are too scanty to enable us to judge of 
that skill in representing character and especially female cha- 
racter with which he is credited. 


AEDILICIA : sc. fabula. We may suppose that at an entertain- 
ment given by the Aediles a money-present is made to some 
popular actor (I) ; and that, later in the day, there is a little 
trouble between a noisy citizen and the police (II). 


Datiirin estis aurum? exultat planipes. 

[DIOMED. 3, p. 487 P. | 

Sed si pepugero, metuet . . . 

[AuL. GELL. 6 (7). 9, 10.] 


THE scene is laid in some popular watering-place, where the 
company is both gay and mixed. The respectable ladies complain 
that the courtesans are not obliged to wear their distinguishing 


dress, as in Rome (I). Then there seems to have been some quar- 
relling between the bathers and the manager of the baths about 
the water-supply. They complain that the water only comes trick- 
ling in ; and he tells them if they are not content he shall close 
the spring altogether (II). 


Cum nostro ornatu per vias meretricie lupantur. 

[NONIUS, s. r. lupari.] 


Aquae ita muginantur hodie Atqui ego fontem occlusero. 

[NoNius, s. v. muginari = murmurare (?).] 


THE only fragment referred to this title has a curious history. 
Isidore of Seville (Origin. 6. 9) asserts that the Romans were for- 
bidden to use, like the Greeks or Etrurians, an iron stylus for 
writing on their waxen tablets : ' ceram ferro ne caedito.' They 
were obliged to use a bone-point (I). 


vertamus vomerem, 

in cera mucrone aeque aremus osseo. 

[IsiroR. I. c.] 




THE Compitalia was a feast held in the winter in honour of the 
Lares, and was celebrated at the spots where cross-roads met. This 
play is interesting, because, in the Prologue, Afranius acknow- 
ledges, with unblushing frankness, that he took his plays not only 
from Menander, but from any author, Latin as well as Greek, who 
happened to serve his purpose (I). He expresses his marked pre- 
ference for Terence (II, III). 


. . . fateor, sumpsi non ab illo modo, 

sed lit quisque habuit conveniret quod mihi, 

quod me non posse melius facere credidi, 

etiam a Latino. 

[MACEOB. Sat. 6. i. 4.] 


Terenti numne similem dicent quempiam? 

[S0ET. Fit. Terent. c. 5, p. 33.] 


. . . ut quicquid loquitur, sal merum est ! 

[PBISCIAN, 5. 8, p. 659 P.] 



Two sisters, very happily married, seem to have had their com- 
fort disturbed by the stupid interference of their father, who tries 
to make a breach between them and their husbands (I) ; accusing 
one of the husbands of an intrigue, which he was keeping secret, in 
order that his wife might not be able to claim her dowry and leave 
him (II). The father seems to have been put up to this by the 
influence of a second wife, whom one of the sisters (or the accused 
husband) addresses in uncomplimentary language (III) ; reminding 
her how pleasant she seemed, when she first came into the family 
(IV). The meretrix, about whom all this disturbance arose, appears 
on the stage, and gives herself a high character (V). 


O dignum facinus ! adulescentis optimas 
bene convenientes, bene Concordes cum viris 
repente viduas factas spurcitia patris ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. spurcus = saevus.] 


. . . qui conere clanculum 
rus ire, dotem ne repromittas, vafer, 
honeste ut latites et nos ludas diutius. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vafer.] 


Mulier, novercae nomen hue adde impium, 
spurca gingivast, gannit hau dici potest . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. spurcus.] 


Quam perspieace, quam benigne, quam cito, 
quam blande, quam materno visa's pectore ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. perspieace =perspicaciter.] 



Vigilans ac sellers, sfcca sana sobria : 
virosa non sum, et si sum non desiint mihi 
qui ultro dent : aetas Integra est, formae satis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. virosa = virorum appetens.] 


A YOUNG man is found prowling about in the cold by his lady- 
love's house, and is asked to explain his business (I). He is dressed 
in a petticoat to look like a girl and so gain admission (II) ; in 
which he succeeds, though he is not used to such disguises (III). 
The mother comes on the scene, and asks the daughter to explain 
the intruder's presence ; she states that he is taking refuge from a 
footpad (IV), and she defends her own modesty she is not a girl 
who wants a host of lovers ! (V). When the quarrel is over, the 
daughter tells the story to some friend about her own suppressed 
laughter, and her mother's fury (VI \ and their ultimate reconcili- 
ation (VII). 


quis tu ventoso in loco 
soleatus, intempesta noctu sub love 

aperto capite, silices cum findat gelus? 

[NONIUS, s. v. gelus, niasc.~\ 

tace ! 
puella non sum, siipparo si induta sum? 

[Noinus, s. v. supparum.] 
Quamquam istaec malitiosa non tarn calleo 

tamen fefelli. 

[NONIUS, s. v. callere, cum occws.] 


Hue vemt fugiens t^nebrionem Tirrium. 

[NONIUS, s. v. tenebrio.] 
H 2 



Nam proba et pudica quod sum, consulo et parco mihi, 
quoniam comparatum est uno ut simus contentae viro. 

[NONIUS, s. v. comparare = constituere.] 


Ego mi'sera risu clandestine rumpier, 
turgere mater, amens ira fervere. 

[NoNius, s. v. rumpere, fervere.] 


Me auctore, mater, abstinebis . Quid nisi ? 

[FESTUS, s. v. quid nisi ?] 


A YOUNG man has an intrigue with a Neapolitan girl, Moschis (I). 
His father meets him walking with her, dressed as a respectable 
lady ; for which the son finds a sort of excuse (II). Rudely sepa- 
rated from Moschis, the young man attempts to drown himself, 
but he is rescued (exceptus) by a fishing- boat (III-V). How is 
Moschis to win him back again ? She is advised to let him over- 
hear her weeping for his supposed loss (VI-VIII). 


Ubi hice Moschis, quaeso, habet, meretrix Neapolitis ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. habere = habitare.] 


Meretrix cum veste longa ? Peregrino in loco 

solent tutandi causa sese sumere. 

[NONIUS, s. v. meretrices.] 


Abi tu : appellant hue ad molem nostram naviculam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. appellare (?).] 



Turn conscendo cumbam interibi liici piscatoriam, 
. . . venio, iacitur anchora, inhibent leniter. 

[NONIUS, s. v. eumba.] 

iubeo hominem tolli 
et conlocari et confoveri : solvo operam Dianae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. operari = sacrificare.] 


De vita ac morte domini fabulabere 
advorsum fratrem illius ac dominum suum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. advorsum = apud.] 


... si ille haec nunc sentit, facere illi satis 
vis, quanta illius mors sit maceries tibi ? 

[NoNius, s. f. maceries = maceratio.] 


Quod vitae studium aut quod praesidium in posterum 
mihi supponebas, me cum privares tui ? 

[NONIUS, tui, gen. pro ablat.~\ 


A NIOOAKDLY father wishes to get his pretty daughter off his 
hands, without having to settle a dowry on her (I) ; and so he 
betroths her to a baker ! (II). ' Why not to a pastry-cook ? ' cries 
the mother, ' and she might have kept the family in tarts ' (III). 
The girl moves heaven and earth to get off the marriage (IV) ; and 
when her own lover brings her in, smartly dressed, to plead her 
case (V), she seems to have been successful, as we find her after- 
wards living in style (VI). 



Formosa virgo est : d6tis dimidium vocant 
isti, qui dotis neglegunt uxorias : 

praeterea fortis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fortis.] 


Dat riistico nescio cui vicino suo 
perpauperi, cui dfcat dotis paiilulum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. dicere = promittere.] 


Pistori nubat ? cur non scriblitario, 
ut mittat fratris filio luciinculos? 

[NoNius, s. u. lucuns.] 


. . . nullam profecto accessi ad aram, quin deos 
supplfciis sumptu votis donis precibus plorans obsecrans 
nequiquam defetigarem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. supplicium = supplicatio.] 


curre, niintia 

venire et mecum meam speratam adducere ; 
inde ut puellam curent, conferment iube. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sperata = sponsa.] 


Mea niitrix, surge sf vis, prefer purpuram : 

praeclavium contextumst. 

[NONIUS, s. v. praeclavium.] 



THE reclamation of a drunken and quarrelsome husband. After 
one stormy scene between the husband and wife, peace is restored 
through the pleading of their little child (I). The wife's father 
overhears the bickering with a secret joy (II}, for he has taken the 
advice of a friend (III), and determined on a heroic remedy. 
Pretending (Simulans) extreme indignation, he announces his inten- 
tion of dissolving this unhappy marriage. He bitterly reproaches 
the husband with his misconduct (IV). [These words were once 
the occasion of a political demonstration. The SimuUms was acted 
in B.C. 57. The consul, Lentulus Spinther, who presided at the 
representation, was, in co-operation with the Optimates, working 
hard for Cicero's return from exile. It was so arranged that, 
when these words of reproach were uttered, the Chorus and actors, 
to a man, fixed their gaze on Clodius, and raised such a storm that 
he was glad to quit the theatre. Cic. Pro Sest. 55.] Now, all the 
money belonged to the wife, so when the dissolution of the mar- 
riage was announced, the husband had to turn out of doors amid the 
jeers of all the household (V). So he puts his pride in his pocket, 
and avails himself of the services of his amiable child, to make 
terms with his wife's father (VI). 


Noli, mea mater, me praesente cum patre 
coi'cere ! Non, si noenu vis, o mel meum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. coicere = certare.] 

Ne ego illos velitantes ausculto lubens. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ausculto.] 

Saeviter ferre haec te simula, et gnatam ab illo abdiicere. 

[NONIUS, s. v. saeviter.] 


haec, taeterrime, 
sunt postprincipia atque 6xitus malae vitiosae vftae. 

[Cic. Pro Sest. 55.] 



Uti servorum captus est, facillime 
domo atque nostra familia protriiditur. 

[DoNAT. In Ter. Adelph. 3. 4. 34 captus est condicio.] 



veretur, me ad te misit oratum pater. 

[Nonius, s. v. vereor, cum genitJ] 


THIS is the technical term for the survivor of twin children, 
when one has died before its birth. In this case, the father, in 
his unreasonable anger, refuses to acknowledge the living child (I). 
He seems to have repudiated his wife, and afterwards to have re- 
pented ; but as he has contracted a new marriage he is barred from 
return to his first love, as his new wife emphatically reminds him 
(II-IV). The rest of the fragments are of a very mixed character : 
a serious defence of the old practice of exposing children (V) : 
honourable marriage commended to young men (VI) : various 
characters introduced, such as the lady who gets power by capri- 
cious alternations of warmth and coolness (VII) ; the old woman 
on the look-out for a young lover (VIII) ; the lady's maid (IX) ; 
the trusty comrade (X) ; and the slaves who are spoiled by their 
masters (XI). 


Non dolorum partionis veniet in mentem tibi, 

quos tu misera pertulisti, ut parturn proiceret pater? 

[NoNius, s. v. partio.] 


Quo casu cecidit spes reducendi domum 
quam cupio, cuius ego in dies impendio 
ex desiderio magis magisque maceror. 

[CHAKIS. s. v. impendio.] 

Z. AFRANWS. 169 


Voluptatem capio maximam, crucian tua te culpa, 
qui de te et de ilia pessime, quam deamas, promerere. 

[NONIUS, s. v. deamare.] 


Igitiir quiesce, et quoniam inter nos miptiae 
sunt dictae, parcas istis verbis, si placet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. dicere = promittere.] 


Antlquitas petenda in principio niihi. 
maiores vestri incupidiores liberum 


[NONIUS, s. v. liberum, gen. phir.~\ 


eius te siiscitat 
imago, cuius effigia, quo gnatu's patre. 

[NoNius, s. r. eflfigia = effigies.] 


Dum me morigeram, diini morosam praebeo, 
deinde aliquid dedita opera controversiae 
concinno, laedo interdum contumeliis. 

[NONIUS, a. r. morigera, morosa.] 

< VIII. 

Si possent homines delenimenti's capi 
omnes haberent mine amatores anus, 
aetas et coi-pus tenerum et morigeratio, 
haec siint venena formosanun mulierum : 
mala aetas nulla delenimenta mvenit. 

[NONIUS, s. r. mala aetas = senectus.j 



novi non inscitulam 
ancillulam, vestrae hie erae vestfspicam. 

[NONIUS, s. r. vestispici.] 

equidem te nunquam mihi 

parasitum, verum amicum aequalem atque hospitem 
cotidianum et laiitum convivam domi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. aequales, lautus.] 


male merentur de nobis eri, 
qui nos tanto opere indulgent in pueritia. 

[NONIUS, s. v. indulgere, cum occws.] 



(An Epigram, modelled on the Alexandrine style by Pompilius 
(al. Papinus) in the first half of the seventh century u. c.) 

Pacvi discipulus dicor, porro is fuit Enni, 

Ennius Musarum ; Pompilius clueo. 

[NONIUS, s. c. cluet.] 
Pacvi, i. e. Pacuvii ; MSS. 



Aulus Ciellius, 19. 9. 10 : 'versus cecinit Valeri Aeditui, veteris 
poetae, item Porcii Licini et Q. Catuli, quibus mundius, venustius, 
limatius, tersius graecum latinumve nihil quidquam reperiri puto. 
Aeditui versus : 


Dicere cum conor curam tibi, Pamphila, cordis, 
quid mi abs te quaeram, verba labris abeunt, 

per pectus manat subito multus mihi sudor : 
sic tacitus, stupidus, duplo ideo pereo 1 . 

Atque item alios versus eiusdem addidit, nee hercle minus dulces 
quam priores : 


Quid faculam praefers, Phileros, qua nil opus nobis? 

fbimus sic : lucet pectore flamma satis, 
istam nam potis est vis saeva exstinguere venti, 

aut imber caelo candidus praecipitans : 
at contra hunc ignem Veneris, nisi si Venus ipsa, 

nullast quae possit vis alia opprimere.' 

1 The reading of the last line is very uncertain. He seems to 
mean that his sufferings are twofold ; first, his passion ; secondly, 
his inability to express it. Bahrens reads ' Sic tacitus, subidus 
dum studeo, pereo.' 



(Q. Lutatius Catulus, consul 102 B. c., was colleague of Marius. ) 


Aufugit mi animus. Credo, ut solet, ad Theotimum 

devenit. sic est : perfugium illud habet. 
quid ? quasi non interdixem, ne illunc fugitivum 

mitteret ad se intro, sed magis eiceret ! 
ibimus quaesitum. verum ne ipsi teneamur 
formido. quid ago ? da Venus consilium. 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 

Wordsworth quotes the original which suggested it, from Calli- 
machus, Ep. 42 : 

ij^iffv fiev tyvxhs <T< TO irvtov, Tjfuav- 8' OVK olo' 

tir' "Epos tfr' 'AiSrjs tfpirafff, ir\^v atyavts. 
% fr& TIV' ts irai8(uv ira\iv <^x fTO ' Ka ^ P& v avfiirov 

TroAAdw, ' rfjv Sprjffnv /*?) viroStxOf, vtot.' 
'Evfi6(ov Si<f>rjaov, ext'iae f&p ^ XiOoKtvaros 
Kfivt), KOI Svaipajs ol5' on itov ffrp(<pfrai. 


Constiteram exorientem Auroram forte salutans, 

cum subito a laeva Roscius exoritur. 
pace mihi liceat, caelestes, dicere vestra ; 

mortalis visust pulchrior esse deo. 

[Cic. .De Mtf. Dear. i. 28.] 



(Aulus Gellius, 17. 21, quotes the opinion of Porcius Licinus 
about the late rise of poetry in Rome : ' serius poeticam Romae 
coepisse dicit, in his versibus.') 

Poenico bello secundo Miisa pinnate gradu 
intulit se bellicosam in Komuli genteni feram. 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 


(Porcius speaks bitterly about Terence and his intimacy with 
the great men of Rome, which profited him so little.) 

Dum lasciviam nobilium et laiides fucosas petit, 
dum Africani vocem divinam haurit avidis auribus, 
dum ad Philum se cenitare et Laelium pulchrum putat, 
dum se amari ab his cum credat, crebro in Albamim venit. 

suis postlatis rebus ad summam inopiam redactus est. 
itaque ex conspectu omnium abit ut Graeciae in terram 


mortuost Stymphali, Arcadiae in oppido, nil Piiblius 
Scipio profuft, nihil illi Laelius, nil Furius, 
tres per id tempus qui agitabant facile nobilissimi : 
eorum ille opera ne domum quidem habuit conductftiam, 
saltern ut esset quo referret obitum domini servulus. 

[SUETOK. Vita Terent.~\ 


Philum, so Roth, for reading of MSS. fixum orfurium. The allusion 
probably is to L. Furius Philus, consul B. c. 136, a contemporary 
and fellow-student of the younger Scipio and Laelius. 

Stymphali for finfalo of MSS., cp. Auson. Ep. 18. 15 : ' Protulit in 
scenam quot dramata fabellarum | Arcadiae medio qui iacet in 

Custodes ovium teneraeque propaginis agnum, 

quaeritis ignem ? ite hue. quaeritis ? ignis homost. 
si digito attigero, incendam silvam simul omnem, 
omne pecus flammast, omnia quae video. 

[AuL. GELL. 19. 9.] 

The last words make no sense. We might write : ' omne pecus : 
flammast omnia quae video ' ; or with Bahrens, ' omnia ab igne 



(Cp. Aul. Gell. 15. 23 : 'Sedigitus in libro quern scripsit de poetis, 
quid de his sentiat qui comoedias fecerunt, et quern ex omnibus 
praestare ceteris putet, ac deinceps quo quemque in loco et honore 
ponat, his versibus suis demonstrat) : 

Multos incertos certare hanc rem vidimus, 
palmam poetae comico cui deferant. 
eum meo iudicio errorem dissolvam tibi, 
ut, contra si quis sentiat, nil sentiat. 
Caecilio palmam Static do mimico ; 
Plautiis secundus facile exsuperat ceteros ; 
dein Naevius qui fervet pretio in tertiost ; 
si erit quod quarto detur dabitur Li'cinio. 
post insequi Licinium facio Atilium ; 
in sexto consequetur hos Terentius ; 
Turpilius septimum, Trabea octavum optinet ; 
nono loco esse facile facio Luscium ; 
decimum addo causa antiquitatis Ennium.' 


(In Sueton. Vita Terentii, the following account of the poet's 
death is assigned to Sedigitus) : 

Sed ut Afer populo sex dedit comoedias, 
iter hinc in Asiam fecit, at navem ut semel 
conscendit, visus nunquam est ; sic vita vacat. 




(Donat., in auctario Suet. vit. Terent., quotes Volcatius (?) as 
accrediting Scipio with the authorship of the Terentian plays. 
The text is given as in Bahrens, Fragm.) 

Publf Terenti hae quae vocantur fabulae 
cuiae sunt ? non qui iura gentibiis dabat 
has summo honore affectas fecit fabulas? 

[DONAT. /. C.] 



PROBABLY the war described in this epic is of the date of 125 B. c., 
in which Sempronius Tuditanus earned his triumph. The earlier 
Histrian war had been dealt with by Ennius. The few fragments 
only reach to the second book. 


per gentes altivolantum 
aetherias atque ardua tesca intraque volabis 

templa antiqua deum. 

[FESTUS, 356, s. v. (?) tesca.] 


non si mihi linguae 
centum atque ora sient totidem vocesque liquatae. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. 3. 6.] 

Dia Minerva simul, simul autem invictus Apollo, 

arquitenens Latonius. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 5. 8.] 


(Aulus Gellius, 18. n, quotes the following 'Furiana,' and de- 
fends them against the harsh censure of the grammarian Caesellius 


Sanguine diluitur tellus, cava terra lutescit. 

Omnia noctescunt tenebris caliginis atrae. 

Increscunt animi, virescit vulnere virtus. 

Sicut fulca l levis volitat super aequora classis. 

Spiritus Eurorum virides cum purpurat undas. 

Quo magis in patriis possint opulescere campis. 

1 fidca fulica, 'coot.' 

N 2 



MATIUS is referred to by Aul. Gell. as ' doctus ' and ' eruditus.' 
The few hexameters which remain from his translation of the Iliad 
show a decided advance in point of metre. 


Corpora Graiorum maerebat mandier igni. (A. 56.) 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 95.] 


Obsceni interpres funestique ominis auctor. (A. 62.) 

[VARRO, L. L. 7. 96.] 


Dum dat vincendi praepes Victoria palmam. (H. 291.) 

[AuL. GELL. 7. 6. 5.] 


An maneat specii simulacrum in nocte silentum. 

(*. 3 ; *. 103.) 
[AuL. GELL. 9. 14. 14.] 


HERO(N)DAS, a contemporary of Theocritus, introduced the use 
of Scazons into light poetry, calling them Mimiambi. Matius 
brought the verse into Roman literature. ' Hoc mimiambos Matius 

CN. MATIUS. 18 1 

dedit metro ; | nam vatem eundena (Hipponax) est Attico thymo 
tinctum | pari lepore consecutus et metro.' Terent. Maur. 6. 397. 


lam iam albicascit Phoebus et recentatur, 
commune hominibus lumen et voluptatis 1 . 

[AuL. GELL. 15. 25.] 

Quapropter edulcare convenit vitam 

curasque acerbas sensibus gubernare. 

[AuL. GELL. /. c.] 


Nuper die quarto 2 , ut recorder, et certe 
aquarium urceum unicum domi fregit. 

[AuL. GELL. 10. 24.] 


Sinuque amicam refice frigidam caldo 
columbulatim labra conserens labris. 

[AuL. GELL. 20. 9.] 


Iam tonsiles tapetes ebrii fuco 

quos concha purpura imbuens venenavit. 

[AuL. GELL. id.] 

1 Probably nom. plur. 

1 die quarto: 'quod "nudius quartus" nos dicimus.' Aul. Gell. 
I. c. 


THE Erotopaegnia of Laevius, of which not less than six books 
were composed, may be supposed to have been love-songs and 
amatory scenes, suited to the freedom of drinking bouts. There 
are very scanty remains. The peculiarity of the poems of Laevius 
was the great variety of the metres in which he wrote, as though 
to test to the utmost the capabilities of the Latin language. The 
Alcestis, Ino, Protesilaodamia, Sirenocirca, &c., are specimens of these 
attempts. Laevius also borrowed from the Khodian poets Simmias, 
Dosiades, and others, the foolish trick of attempting to represent 
the outlines of various things, such as an altar, a pan-pipe, an egg, 
by arranging lines of different length in such order that a stroke 
traced through the first and last letter of each would produce a 
particular shape. As Simmias had sketched out the 'Wing of 
p]ros,' so Laevius in his ' Phoenix' has attempted by the graduation 
<>f his lines to suggest a wing. 


Numquod meum admissum nocens 

hostit voluntatem tuam? 

. [NONIUS, s. i. hostire = offendere.] 


Corpore tenuato pectoreque 
undique obeso ac mente exsensa 

tardigeniclo senio obpressum. 

[AuL. GELL. 19. 7.} 

LAEVIUS. 1 83 

To this it may be well to add the remainder of the chapter in 
Gellius, who gives various examples of the bizarre language of 
Laevius : ' item notavimus quod oblitteram gentem pro " oblitterata " 
dixit ; item quod hostes qui foedera frangerent foedifragos, non 
" foederifragos " dixit ; item quod rubentem Auroram pudoricolorem 
appellavit, et Memnona tiocttcolorem ; item quod/orfe, " dubitanter," et 
ab eo quod est " sileo " silenta loca dixit et pidverulenta et pestilenta, et 
quod carendum tui est pro " te," quodque magno impete pro " impetu " ; 
item quod fortescere posuit pro " fortem fieri," quodque dolentiam pro 
"dolore," et arens pro " libens" ; item curis intderantibus pro " in- 
tolerandis," quodque mancidis, inquit, tenellis pro " manibus" ; et quis 
tarn siliceo? . . . Item fieri, inquit, inpendio inflt, id est "fieri inpense 
incipit " ; quodque accipitret posuit pro " laceret " . . . . Cetera, quae 
videbantur nimis poetica . . . praetermisimus ; veluti fuit quod de 
Nestore ait trisaedisenex et dulciorelocus : item quod de tumidis fluc- 
tibus inquit multigrumis, et flumina gelu concreta tegmine ease 
onychino dixit : et quae multiplicia ludens composuit ; quale istud 
est quod vituperones suos subductisupercilii carptores appellant. ' 


Et iam purpureo suras include cothurno, 
balteus et revocet volucres in pectore sinus, 
pressaque iam gravida crepitent tibi terga pharetra, 
derige odorisequos ad certa cubilia canes. 

[It will be noticed that the second and fourth hexameter ends in 
an iambus : this particular form of verse being called miurus (ftdoiv . . 
ovpa). The lines are quoted by Terent. Maurus, 1931, with the 
following introduction : ' Livius ille vetus Graio cognomine suae . 
inserit Inoni versus, puto, tale docimen : | praemisso heroo sub- 
iungit namque miuron, | hymnum quando chorus festo canit ore 
Triviae. | Et iam e. q. s.' There seems to be no doubt that Terent. 
Maur. is in error in ascribing the Ino to Livius rather than to 
Laevius, with whose style the language and versification agree. 
The scene probably represents the wild vision of the hunt which 
Athamas saw in his delirium, and in which he seemed to be taking 
part. See Ovid, Metam. 4. 512 foil.] 



| Venus amoris altrix genetrix cuppiditatis, mihi | 
| quae diem serenum hilarula praepandere cresti | 
j obseculae tuae ac ministrae, | 
| etsi ne utiquam, quid foret expavida gravls du- | 
| -ra fera asperaque famultas, potui domnio in ac- 
| -cipere superbo. | 

[CHARIS. 288 K.] 


IT would seem that Laodamia, anxious about her husband in 
his absence, describes (perhaps in a letter) the charms of some 
fair Asiatic women, whose attractions have been a danger to Pro- 


Gracilentis color est, 

dum ex hoc gracilans fit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. gracilens.] 


Nunc quaepiam alia de Ilio 
Asiatico ornatu affluens 
aut Sardiano ac Lydio, 
fulgens decore et gratia 


[PEISCIAN, i. 497 H.] 


Lex Licinia introducitur, 
lux liquida haedo redditur. 

[AuL. GELL. 2. 24.] 


[See Aul. Gell. I. c. : ' Verba Laevii significant haedum qui ad 
epulas fuerat adlatus dimissum, cenamque ita, ut lex Licinia 
sanxisset, pomis oleribusque instructam.' This sumptuary law of 
Licinius was passed before B.C. 103, and was repealed in B.C. 97.] 


Antipathes 1 illud quaerito, 
philtra omnia undique irruunt : 
trochilisci 2 , iunges, taeniae, 
radiculae, herbae, surculi, 
sauri, illices 3 bicodulae, 
hinnientium dulcedines 4 . 

1 antipatfies, an antidote against spells ; Plin. N. H. 37. 
* trochilisci, probably ' little wheels,' on which the tvyyts (wry- 
necks) were tied. 

3 illices. The 'two-tailed lures' are probably doubled ribbons or 
threads (licia). 

4 dulcedines. See the description of the ' hippomanes,' Verg. 
Aen. 4. 516. 



THE making of some kind of compote, into which the ' peach ' 
(Persicaj enters. 

Admiscet bacas nucis : haec nunc regia partini, 
partim Persica (quod nomen fit denique) fertur 
propterea, quod qui quondam cum. rege potenti, 
nomine Alexandro Magno, fera proelia belli 
in Persas tetulere, suo post inde reventu 
hoc genus arboris in praelatis finibus Grais 
dissevere, novos fructus mortalibus dantes. 

mollusca haec nux est, ne quis forte inscius erret. 

[MACROB. Sat. 3. 18. 10.] 



SUEIUS seems to have had a poultry farm at Ostia ; and gives 
remedies for the diseases of fowls. 

Escam hie absinthi e iure in os pulli dato, 

simul assulatim viscus assumit cibum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. assulatim = minutatim.] 


THE old Oscan farce fabula Atellana took a new lease of life 
and a distinct literary development, in the hands of Pomponius of 
Bologna and Novius. There are titles preserved of 70 of the plays 
of Pomponius, and fragments amounting to 200 lines : of the plays 
of Novius 40 titles and TOO lines. But the remains are so scattered 
that it is impossible to sketch the entire plot of a single play. The 
original peculiarity of the Atellanes is preserved to a considerable 
extent in their new form : that is to say, the retention of certain 
stereotyped characters Maccus, the prototype of the clown or har- 
lequin of the pantomime a compound of folly and shrewdness, 
who was, however, a favourite with the audience ; Pappus, the old 
fool, like the pantaloon, always doing the wrong thing in the 
wrong way ; Bucco, the glutton and swaggerer, like the dAdfwv of 
the Attic comic stage ; and Dossennus, the hunchback, a man of low 
cunning and endless resource. M. Patin, describing the resuscita- 
tion of the Atellane and the mime, speaks of them as ' ces antiques 
parades devenues le cadre d'une nouveUe fabula palliata, d'une nou- 
velle fabula togata, ou plutdt tabernaria. ... La constitution de 
Yatellane changea avec le temps. Elle passa des amateurs aux 
comediens, de I'improvisation a une redaction prelim inaire, de 
1'osque au latin, de la prose aux vers. . . . UateUane ainsi renouveleo 
etait particulierement une sorte de fabula iabernaria, qui, sous les 
masques d'Atella, se moquait des basses classes de la societe, sur- 
tout de la society extra murox, des ridicules de la campagne et de la 
petite ville '.' 

A few lines must suffice to suggest the subjects with which these 
farces dealt. 

1 Etudes sur la poesie latine, vol. 2, p. 333. 





Instance of rustic Latinity. 

primum quod dicebo 
recte, secundum quod dicebo est melius . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. dicebo pro dicam.J 


A hobgoblin with an ogre's appetite. 

Vortit se in omnes bestias, comest quidquid tetigit 


[NONIUS, s. v. comest.] 


' Fierce volubility.' 

pestifera portentifera trux tolutiloquentia ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. tolutim.] 


Limen means both lintel and sill. 

Limen superum, quod mei misero saepe confreglt caput, 

inferum autem, digitos omnes ubi ego defregi meos. 

^NONIUS, s. v. limen. Cp. PLAUT. Merc. 5. i. i.] 

NOVIUS. 189 


A glutton reminds one of a baby ! 

Tii pueri pausilli simil es, quia enim ad os fers quid- 
quid nanctu's. 

[NONIUS, s. v. simil(e).] 


The author rushes ' like a shot ' to his writing. 

Ut sol aurescit, cerae castra crebro catapulta inpulit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. catapulta.] 


The old man, rejected as a candidate, will sooner find a seat in 
his coffin than in the ' curule chair.' 

dum istos invitabis suffragator6s, pater, 

prius in capulo quam in curuli sella suspendes natis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. capulum.] 


A dowerless wife is like a patch on a purple cloak. 
Qui habet uxorem sine dote, ei pannum positum in 

piirpura est. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pannum, next.] 


A debtor is ' going,' for 1000 sesterces. A bystander asks the 
amount. Then, as if he were at an auction, and as if the poor 


man was a ' lot put up ' at so much, he says, ' I go no higher : take 
him off.' 

'Quanti addictus?' ' Mille minimum.' ' Nihil addo ; 

ducas licet.' 

[Cic. De Orat. 2. 63.] 


A joke in the shape of a truism. 

. . . sapiens si algebis tremes. 

[Cic. De Orat. 2. 70.] 




The sacristan who hates his service. 

Qui postquam tibi adpareo atque aeditumor in templo tuo 
nee mortalis nee mortalium ullum in terra miseriust. 

[NONIUS, s. v. aedituor (?).] 


A portable step-ladder is brought on the stage : perhaps for 
Ajax to get nearer to Athena. 

Turn prae se portant ascendibilem semitam, 

quem scalam vocitant. 

[LACTANT. in Stat. Theb. 10. 841.] 




The village barber is also a soothsayer ; but he misunderstands 
the word puriter. 

bucco, puriter, 
fac ut rem tractes Lavi iamdudum manus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. puriter. ! 


The gladiator wins the lady's love by his prowess as a toreador. 

Occi'dit taurum torviter, me amore sauciavit. 

[Nouius, s. v. torviter.] 


Proclamation of a public ffirTjais for Dossennus and the Fullers. 

Dantor publicitus Dossenno et fullonibus 


[NONIUS, s. i\ publicitus.] 


Everyone would be glad if his wife were to die ! 

noli, quaeso, irascere : 
more fit, morire suam vir quisque ut uxor6m velit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. irascere.] 



What will hardly keep one will not keep two. 

Vi'x nunc quod edim invenio : quid nam fiet, si quam 

duxero ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. edim.J 


' Do withdraw for il a little ! " ' ' How long is " a little" ? ' 

' Possum exorare te ut recedas a me paulisper modo ? ' 

' Quantisper sat habes ? ' 

[NONIUS, s. v, quantisper. j 


To be bailiff to an absentee is very like being master. 

Longe ab urbe vilicari, quo erus rarenter venit, 
id non vilicari sed dominari est mea sententia. 

[NONIUS, s. v. rarenter.] 


A joke on the standing quarrel between the Fullers and the 
weaving- women. 

Quin 6rgo, quando convenit, complectite ! 
'mi f rater, salveto.' '6 soror, salve, mea.' 

[NONIUS, s. v. complectite.] 



Rehearsing for a female character. 

'Vocem deducas oportet, lit videantur mulieris 

verba.' ' lube, modo adferatur miinus, vocem reddam ego 

tenuem et tinnulam . . . 

etiam nunc vocem deducam ? ' 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 4. 13.] 


After a good dinner, a punster makes a joke on empty bellies. 

Miserit me eorum qui sine frustis ventrem frustrarunt 


[NONIUS, s. v. frustro.] 


'Nubere ' used of a man who marries an overpowering wife. 

sed meus 

frater maior, postquam vidit me vi deiectiim domo, 
mipsit posteriiis dotatae vetulae varicosae vafrae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. nubere.] 


A young wife's anger at her goodman's unexpected return. 

Volo scire ex te cur urbanas res desubito deseris. 

[NONIUS, s. P. desubito.] 



The philosophy of a rejected candidate : 'better luck next time!' 

Populi's voluntas haec enim et vulgo datast : 
refragant primo, suffragabunt post, scio. 

[NONIUS, s. v. suffragare.] 


A professional opinion not to be had gratis. 

' Ergo, mi Dossenne, cum istaec memore meministi, 

qul illud aurum abstiilerit.' 'non didici ariolari gratiis.' 

[NoNius, s. v. memore = memoriter.] 


The cheating miller eats the corn given him to grind. 

Decipit vicinos : quod molendum conduxit, comest. 

[NONIUS, s. v. comest.] 


The son takes the father aside to drub him quietly. 

Ego dedita opera te, pater, solum foras 
sediixi, ut ne quis 6sset testis tertius 
praeter nos, tibi cum tunderem labeas lubens. 

[NONIUS, s. v. labeae.] 




Pudding is better than praise ! 

Ego rumorem parvi facio, diirn sit rumen qui impleam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. rumen, ' the crop.'] 


Wine is the crown of gaiety. 

Cuiusvfs leporis Liber diademam dedit. 

[PRISCIAN, 6. z, p. 679 P. s. v. diademam.] 


The glutton's gross diet ; all bacon and no salad ! 

Lapatium nullum utebatur, lardum lurchabat lubens. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lurchare = cum aviditate cibum sumere.] 

O 2 



ABORIGINES (irepl dc0po5irwc <j>u'cre(s). 

THIS Satura seems to deal with the beginnings of the human 
race. It opens with a procession of animals, uttering their distinc- 
tive cries (I, II) ; so there is a contrast suggested between the 
brutes and Man, who is a being urged on by soaring hopes, which 
disappoint him in the moment of fruition (III). His best com- 
panion is Virtue, the only companion suitable alike to the grey- 
beard and the boy indeed, the old require it even more, for an 
ass, after a certain age, is no better than one too young (IV). 
Mankind, according to Varro, makes slow progress, like the growth 
of a child ; and the first beginnings of artistic taste are seen in the 
desire to fashion and possess dolls and little images (V). 


Mugit bovis, ovis balat, equi hinniunt, galh'na 


[NONIUS, s.v. pipare.] 

Grundit tepido lacte satiir mola mactatus 


[NONIUS, s. v. grunnire. ] 

Ita sublimis speribus 
iactato homines at volitantes altos nitens trudito. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sperem => spem.] 



Sed neque vetulus cantherius quam novellus melior 
nee canitudini comes virtus. 

[NONIUS, s.v. canitudo = canities.] 

Itaque brevi tempore magna pars in desiderium 

puparum et sigillorum veniebat. 

[Nonius, s. v. pupa.] 


ANDABATAE (Cic. Fam. 7. 10) were gladiators who wore visored 
helmets without any aperture for the eyes ; and so, to the amuse- 
ment of the spectators, fought blindfold. There is probably an 
allusion in this title to the imprisonment of the soul in the bonds 
of flesh, and its subjection to the slavery of lusts (I, II, III). The 
tone is distinctly anti-materialistic ' man is anything rather than 
a mere lump of flesh ' (IV) : the soul is pent within him. like air 
in a bladder (V). 


Non mirum si caecuttis, aurum enim non minus prae- 
stringit oculos quam 6 TTO\VS aKparos. l 

[Nonius, s. v. praestringere.] 


'Edepol' idem 'caecus non luscitiosus est.' 
[NONIUS, s. v. lusciosus = qui ad lucernam non vident. Cp. PLAUT. 

Ma. Glor. 2. 3. 51.] 


Nec manus visco tenaci tinxerat viri castas. 

[NONIUS, s.r. castum = a furtis abstinens.] 

1 Cp. Menander, Monostich. 420 & woAiis dteparos 6\iy' 



Sed quidvis potius homo quam caruncula nostra. 

[PBISC. 6. p. 209, s. v. caruncula.] 

Anima ut conclusa in vesica quando est arte religata, 

si pertuderis, aera reddet. 

[NONIUS, s.v. aer = sonus.] 


THE subject of this Satura seems, generally, to deal with the 
Family its foundation, growth, and maintenance. Varro evidently 
protests against extravagance in the marriage-festivals and marriage 
settlements. To live up to this excessive rate the head of the 
family has to borrow, and the usurer takes his bond (scriptid) for 
double the amount actually lent (I) ; but the possession of wealth 
will not ensure peace of mind ; not even those Mountains of the 
Persians, which were said (Plaut. Pers. i. i. 24) to be of solid 
gold (II). Dowries must be reckoned by so many kingdoms, 
rather than by so many pounds (III) ; and the god of Wedlock 
is a purge that washes out the purse (IV). 


Vulgoque avarus fenerator spe lucri 
rem scriptione duplicarat. 

[NONIUS, scriptio = syngrapha.] 


Non fit thesauris non auro pectus solutum ; 
non demunt animis curas ac religiones 
Persarum montes, non atria divitis Crassi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. religio.J 



Doti's dato insulam Chrysam, agrum Ca6cubum, seplasia l 
Capuae, macellum Eomuli. 

[Nonius, s. . seplasium neut. = perfume.] 


Et Hymenaeus qui primo lavere alvum marsuppio solet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lavere.] 


THIS Satura turns on a special application of the language 
of philosophy to practical life. The Sceptics had summed up their 
objections against any objective certitude in ten points as we may 
call them, ' turning-points,' rpoitoi. Varro plays upon the ambiguity 
of this word ; introducing himself in a double personality 
one ' Marcus ' representing the Roman of the past, the other of 
the present. The honest, old-fashioned ' Marcus,' like the heroes 
of ancient days (except iro\vTpoiros 'O8vffff(vs\ is innocent of any 
' choppings and changings ' : the nearest approach to such a word 
that he can realise is rpoiraua, ' the trophies raised after the 
rout (rparrlf) of the foe ' (I-III). A good ' turning-point ' for the 
degenerate sons of Rome would be the descent of the crashing 
thunderbolt upon their orgies ! (IV, V N . No Hercules could cleanse 
such Augean stables ! (VI). 


Tporrwv rponovs qui non modo ignorasse me 
clamat, sed omnino omnis heroas negat 

[NONIUS, s.v. negativae duae negativam signincantiam 
non habentes.] 

1 Seplasia (urn}, a street in Capua where perfumes were sold : 
then, the perfumes themselves. 



Ebrius es, Marce ; Odyssian enim Homeri ruminari 
incipis, cum rrfpl rpon^v scripturum te Seio receperis. 

[NONIUS, s.v. recipere = polliceri.] 


Ideo fuga hostium graece vocatur Tpnirr). Hinc spolia 
fixa in stipitibus appellantur Tponala. 

[NONIUS, s. v. tropaeum.] 


Tune repentecaelitum altum tonitribus templiim tonescat, 
et pater divum trisulcum fulmen igni fervido actum 
mi'ttat in tholum macelli. 

[NONIUS, s. v. tonescit : sulcus.] 


Magna uti tremescat Koma et magnae mandoiium gulae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. mandones = edaces.] 


Non Hercules potest qui Augeae egessit Konpov. 

[NONIUS, s. v. agere, fortasse pro ' egerere '.] 


THIS mysterious title is really quite unintelligible. As the tub in 
which Diogenes lived is called 'dolium' in Juv. Sat. 14. 308, it has 
been conjectured that we have here the excuse given by the 
philosopher for living in a roofless dwelling, because he had an 
uninterrupted view of all the glories of the midnight skies. 

Mundus domus est maxima homulli, 
quam quinque altitonae flammigerae 


zonae cingunt, per quam limbus 
bis sex signis stellimicantibus 
aptiis in obliquo aethere Lunae 
bigas acceptat. 

[PROBUS in Verg. Ed. 6. 31 caelum : mundus.] 


' PROVERBIUM monet compotationi finem faciendum esse, quum 
plenae sunt matulae factae,' Oehler ad 1. There seems to be a dis- 
pute between a man who enjoys his wine, and a ' temperance 
advocate,' who complains of the bad example set by the gods. 


Vino nihil iuciindius quisquam bibit : 
hoc aegritudinem ad medendam invenerunt, 
hoc hilaritatis diilce seminarium, 
hoc continet coagulum convivia. 

[NONIUS, s. v. coagulum.] 


Non vides ipsos deos, si quando volunt gustare vinum, 
derepere ad hominum fana, et tamen turn ipsi illi Libero 

simpuvio vinum dari ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. simpuvium.] 


IN this Satura the Stoics and Cynics seem to be played off 
against each other. A certain Cynic finds that it is his day for 
entertaining a party of philosophers, mainly of his own sect : 
the inscription Cave Canem, at the house where they meet, is 
sufficiently suggestive of the Cynics (I). At table a Stoic proposes 
the well-known thesis that all men are mad. This sweeping judg- 
ment is illustrated by various portraits from life, scenes from the 
poets, &c. There is Ajax slaughtering beasts in mistake for Ulysses, 


there is the hard-headed, half-brutalised man, the youth who 
drinks too much for the good of his health, the effeminate de- 
bauchee, the gourmand, the man of fashion, the miser all these 
are clear cases of madness (II- VI). The Cynic extends this 
sentence to all philosophers, with their wild dreams (VII). Then 
the guests rise and walk about the town to inspect the various 
instances of madness they may encounter (VIII). They visit the 
temple of Serapis, and find that all the machinery of oracles, heal- 
ing, &c. are so many ways of getting at the money of the credulous 
(IX, X). They move on to the temple of Cybele, and there they hear 
the sound of the Phrygian flutes, the clashing cymbals, and the 
song of the eunuch-priests (given in Galliambics) (XI -XIII). The 
Cynic cannot control his outspoken indignation ; so he is pursued 
by the fanatical crowd, and has to take refuge at an altar (XIV). 
The guests, continuing their walk, mount an eminence, from which 
they see the people pursued by three Furies, the third of whom is 
Insania her foot planted on her victims' chest and her wild hair 
streaming in the wind (XV, XVI). The narrator of the story runs 
down and proffers aid, but he is badly received by the crowd, who 
scorn his help and proclaim him a madman (XVII). Brought 
before the bar of public opinion (Existimatio) he is registered on 
the list of the ' insani ' (XVIII). But Truth, the pupil of the 
Attic Academy, saves him by remarking that 'to the jaundiced eye 
everything looks yellow ' (XIX, XX). 


Quod ea die mea erat praebitio, in ianuam ' cave canem ' 

inscribi iubeo. 

[NONIUS, s. v. praebitio.] 


Aiax turn credit ferro se caedere Ulixem 
cum bacchans silvam caedit porcosque trucidat. 

[NONIUS, s. v. caedere.] 


Quin mihi caperratam tuam frontem, Strobile, omittis? 
[NONIUS, s. v. caperrare est rugis frontem asperare.] 



Tu non insanis quom tibi vino corpus corrumpis mero ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. memm est solum.] 


Aurorat ostrinum hfc indutus supparum, 
coronam ex auro et gemmis fulgentem gerit 

luce locum afficiens. 

[NONIUS, s. v ostrinum.] 


Denique qui sit avarus 
sanus? cui si stet terrai traditus orbis, 
furando tamen ac morbo stimulatus eodem 
ex sese ipse aliquid quaerat cogatque peculi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. stat : cogere.] 


Postremo nemo aegrotus quicquam somniat 

tarn infandum, quod non aliquis dicat philosophus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. infans, i. e. infandum.] 


Et ceteri scholastici, saturis auribus scholica dape atque 
ebriis sophistica cm(pavro\oylq, consurgimus ieiunis oculis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ebrios = expletos.] 


Hospes quid miras nummo curare Serapim? 

Quid ? quasi non curet tanti item Aristoteles ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. miras = miraris.] 



'Ego medicina, Serapi, utor,' cotidie precantur. Intel- 
lego recte scriptum esse Delphis ' & rjpa. [=$epe]. 

[NONIUS, s.v. precantur.] 


Commodum praeter Matris Deum aedem exaudio cym- 

balorum sonitum. 

[NoNius, s. v. praeter = ante.] 


Phrygius per ossa cornus liquida canit anima. 

[NONIUS, s. v. liquidum.] 


Tibi typana non inanis sonitus Matris deum 
tonimus chorus tibinos tibi nunc semiviri ; 
teretem comam volantem iactant tibi famuli. 

[NONIUS, s. v. tonimus : tibinos = a tibiis modos (?).] 


Ubi vident se cantando ex ara excantare non posse, 

deripere incipiunt. 

[NONIUS, s.v. excantare.] 


Sed nos simul atque in sumnaam speculam venimus, 
videmus populum Furiis instinctum tribus 
diver sim ferri exterritum formidine. 

[NONIUS, s.v. exterritum.] 


Tertia Poenarum, 
Insania, stans nixa in vulgi 


pectore, fluctanti intonsa coma, 

sordida vestitu, ore severe. 

[NONIUS, s. r. severum.] 


' Vix vulgus confluit ' non Furiarum sed puerorum 
atque ancillarum, quae omnes me bilem atram agitare 
clamitantes opinionem mihi insaniae meae confirmant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pueros pro servis.] 


Forenses decernunt, ut Existimatio nomen meum in 

insanorum numerum referat. 

[NONIUS, s. r. decernere.] 


Et ecce de improvise ad nos accedit cana Veritas, 

Attices philosophiae alumna. 

[NONIUS, s. v. canum = vetus.] 


Nam ut arquatis lutea quae non sunt et quae sunt, 
lutea videntur, sic insanis sani et furiosi videntur esse 


[NONIUS, s. v. arquatus.] 


Two persons may be supposed to be brought together in this 
Satura a man of mature years, and a young representative of the 
luxury of modern Rome. The splendours and the progress of later 
years are contrasted with the coarseness of old-fashioned times. 
The elderly man laments the loss of reverence and chastity (I), and 
the simplicity of family life, and the thrift of the housewife (II) ; 
recommending the manly severity of the consul Curius towards the 
malingerer (III). With these memories the young Roman con- 


trasts the grandeur of the new country-houses with their cellars 
and barns and wine-presses laughing contemptuously at the rough, 
plain life of his ancestors (IV- VII). 


Ergo turn sacra religio castaeque fuerunt 

res omnes. 

[NONIUS, s'.v. castum=religiosum.] 


Sed simul manibus trahere lanam, nee non simul 
oculis observare ollam pultis, ne aduratur. 

[Nonius, s. v. olla = capacissimum vas.] 


Manius Curius consul in Capitolio cum dilectum 
haberet nee citatus in tribu civis respondisset vendidit 


[NONIUS, s. v. tenebriones.] 


In quibus Libyssa citrus fasciis cingit fores. 

[NONIUS, s. v. citras.] 


Ubi graves pascantur atque alantur pavonum greges. 

[NONIUS, s. v. grave = multum.] 


Vel decem messis ubi una saepiant granaria. 

[NONIUS, s. v. granaria.] 


Vineis ubi ampla cella torculum respondeat. 

[NONIUS, s. v. torculum, i. e. prelum.] 


KOIMOTOPYNH (irepl <|>9opas KcSafiOu). 

ANAXIMANDER, Heracleitus and Empedocles had already specu- 
lated on the destruction of the material universe, and the Stoics 
held that it would be consumed by fire. Others maintained that 
it would come to an end, not by a violent catastrophe but by a 
gradual wearing away. This seems to be the underlying idea in 
KO2MOTOPTNH, if ropvvrj is to be taken as a ' wimble ' or ' drill ', 
rather than a 'stirrer' or 'squeezer' (as tudiada). Death waits 
upon the first beginnings of life (I) ; and war is another fruitful 
cause of this destruction, whether we think of the soldier going on 
his campaign and returning in safety (II, III), or of the horrors of 
civil war (IV). It seems that Varro plays upon the word Kocfios, 
and extends its meaning to all manner of decorative things, which 
are liable to the corruption of ' moth and rust ' (V). 


Propter cunam capulum positum 
nutrix tradit pollictori. 

[Nonius, s. v. capulum : pollinctores.] 


Toga detracta est, et abolla data est, 
ad turbam abii, fera militia 
munera belli ut praestarem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. abolla = vestis militaris.] 


Detis habenas animae leni, 
dum nos ventus flamine sudo 
suavem ad patriam perducit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. anima = ventus.] 


Africa terribilis : contra concurrere civis 
civi, atque Aeneae misceri sanguine sanguen. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sanguen.] 



Singulos lectos stratos ubi habuimus, amisimus propter 
cariem et tineam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. caries est vetustas.] 


I MAY venture here to reproduce the sketch given of this Satura 
in Mommsen's Roman History, B. v. Chap, xii : ' The Satire 
of "Manius" (Early Up!) describes the management of a rural 
household. Manius summons his people to rise with the sun, 
and in person conducts them to the scene of their labours (I). 
The youths make their own bed, which labour renders soft to them, 
and supply themselves with waterpot and lamp (II). Their drink 
is the clear fresh spring, their fare bread, and onions as a relish 
(III). Everything prospers in house and field. The house is no 
work of art, but an architect might learn symmetry from it (IV) . 
Care is taken of the field, that it shall not be left disorderly and 
waste, or go to ruin through slovenliness and neglect (V) ; in 
return, the grateful Ceres wards off damage from the produce, that 
the high-piled sheaves may gladden the heart of the husbandman 
(VI). Here hospitality still holds good ; everyone who has but 
imbibed his mother's milk is welcome (VII). The bread-pantry, 
and wine-vat, and the store of sausages on the rafters, lock and 
key are at the service of the traveller, and piles of food are set 
before him (VIII) ; contented sits the sated guest, looking neither 
before nor behind, dozing by the hearth in the kitchen (IX). The 
warmest double-wool sheepskin is spread as a couch for him (X). 
Here people still, as good burghers, obey the righteous law, which 
neither out of envy injures the innocent, nor out of favour pardons 
the guilty. Here they speak no evil against their neighbours (XI) . 
Here they trespass not with their feet on the sacred hearth, but 
honour the gods with devotion and sacrifices, throw to the familiar 
spirit his little bit of flesh into the appointed little dish (XII), and 
when the master of the household dies accompany the bier with 
the same prayer with which those of his father and of his grand- 
father were borne forth ' (XIII). 



Manius mane suscitat, rostrum sub rostra adfert, 

populum in forum conducit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. conducere.] 


Lecto strato matellam, lucernam, ceteras res esui 
usuique prae se portant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. matella = aquarium vas.] 


Dulcem aquam bibat salubrem et flebile esitet cepe. 

[NONIUS, s. v. cepe, neutr.] 

harum aedium 
symmetria confutabat architectones. 

[NONIUS, s. v. confutare.] 

Ager lit relinqueretur ac perbiteret 
squale scabreque inliivie et vastitiidine. 

[NONIUS, s. v. scabres : squalor (?) femin.] 


Hiinc Ceres, cibi ministra, friigibus suis porcet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. porcet = prohibet.] 


Nam eum ad quern veniunt in hospitium lac huma- 

num fellasse. 

[NONIUS, s. v. fellare.] 

Haec adventoribus accedunt : cellae, claves, claustra, 

carnaria, dolia. 

[NONIUS, s.v. dolia.] 




antepositam alimoniam, sedens altus alieno sumptu, 
neque post respiciens neque ante prospiciens, sed limus 

limites culinae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. limus = obtortus, i.e. with sidelong glance.] 


Alterum bene dormire 'super amphitapha bene molli.' 

[NONIUS, s. v. amphitaphae, utrinque habentes villos.] 


Quocirca oportet bonum civera legibus parere, et decs 

colere, in patellam dare piKpbv Kpeas. 

[NONIUS, s. v. patella.] 


Non maledicere, pedem in focum non imponere, sacri- 


[NONIUS, s. v. sacrificari.] 

Funere familiari commoto avito ac patrito more pre- 


[NONIUS, s. i?. patritum.] 


MARCIPOR, i. e. Marci puer, or Varro's own slave. It is difficult 
to decide whether the master is moralising to the slave, or the 
slave (as in Hor. Sat 2. 7) lecturing the master. The general 
subject of the Satura is the vanity and extravagance of human 
wishes, exemplified in children and in men and women, who are as 
silly as children (I-III). The verses about the storm have been 


taken to refer to the dangers incurred by merchants in search of 
gain, and have been compared with the picture of the shipwrecked 
adventurer in Juvenal (Sat. 14. 290 foil.). But this is hardly com- 
patible with the description of the soaring storks, blasted by 
lightning, and tumbling to the ground. It may therefore be better 
to see in this scene a reminiscence of the flight of Menippus, on a 
voyage of investigation, to the court of Zeus, as given by Lucian in 
the Icaromenippus, though the fate of the philosopher there was 
not so disastrous. 


Utri magis sunt pueri? hi pusilli pigri, qui exspec- 
tant nundinas J , ut magister dimittat lusum ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. lusus pro ludo.] 

Altera exorat patrem libram ocellatorum 2 , altera virum 

semodium margaritarum. 

[NONIUS, s. v. margaritum.] 


Astrologi non sunt, qui conscribillarunt pingentes 

caelum ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. conscribillavi.] 


Eep6nte noctis circiter meridie, 
cum pictus a6r fervidis late fgnibus 
caeli chorean astricen ostenderet. 

[NONIUS, s. v. meridiem = noctis mediam partem.] 

nubes aquali frigido velo leves 
caeli cavernas aiireas subduxerant, 
aquam vomentes inferam mortalibus. 

[NONIUS, s. c. inferum.] 

ventfque frigido se ab axe eniperant, 

1 nundinas, sc. 'holidays.' 

2 some precious stone, with marks or dots like eyes. 

P 2 


phrenetic! septentrionum fflii, 
secum ferentes tegulas, ramos, syrus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. syrus (avptw) = scopas. ] 

at nos caduci naiifragi, ut ciconiae, 
quarum bipennis fulminis plumas vapor 
perussit, alte maesti in terram cecidimus. 

[NoNius, s. v. bipennis.] 


IT is impossible to say whether the title of this Satura suggests 
a real and practicable commonwealth, such as Marcus (Varro) 
would wish it to be ; or whether it is only an aspiration a 
Wf<f>e\oKOKKvyia after his own heart, as Mommsen calls it. Any- 
how, the point seems to lie in an elaborate analogy between the 
various arrangements of a properly organised city and the general 
economy of the human body (I). Though in the beginning 
of human society there may be a general equality, it is not long 
before the principle of the ' survival of the fittest ' asserts itself (II, 


Sensus portae, venae hydragogiae, cloaca intestini. 

[NoNius, s.v. intestini, masc.~] 


Natura humanis omnia sunt paria. 
Qui pote plus, urget pisces ut saepe minutos 
Magnus comest, ut avis enicat accipiter. 

[NONIUS, s. v. comest = comedit.] 


Nemini Fortuna currum a carcere intimo missum 
labi inoffensum per aequor candiduni ad calcem sinit. 

[NONIUS, s. v. calx, masc.] 



Tins word, which properly means a dry measure of capacity, 
is used as the title of the Satura because it suggests a constant play 
on the words ' modus,' ' modicus,' ' modeste,' ' medioxime,' and 
the like. Varro apologises for the ' theatrical measure ' of his 
treatise : which, however, need not be touched by his friend, and 
the writing can easily be sponged out (I, II). It is better to keep 
to a moderate amount of meat and drink (III) ; unlike the custom 
of those whose measure of living is high living (IV). This 
' moderation ' is the secret of life, and it is the text of the famous 
Delphic inscription (V, VI). 


Sed, 6 Petrulle, ne meum taxis librum 
si te pepugerit hie modus scaenatilis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. taxis = tetigeris.] 


Si displicebit, tarn tibi latum mare 
parabit aliquam spongiam deletilem. 

[NONIUS, s. r. deletile = quod deleat. ] 


. . . trimodiarn amphoramque eundem temeti ac farris 


[NONIUS, s v. temetum.] 

Et hoc interest inter Epicurum et ganeones nostros 
quibus modulus est vitae colina. 

[NONIUS, s. v. colina = coquina.] 


Non eos optime vixisse qui diutissime vixent, sed qui 


[NONIUS, s. r. modestum a modico.] 



Quid aliud est quod 

' Delphice canft columna li'tteris suis ayav 

/JUjdfV ' 

quam nos facere ad mortalem modum 'medioxime,' ut 
quondam patres nostri loquebantur 1 

[NONIUS, s. v. medioximum = mediocre.] 


THE proverb in full runs thus : ovos \vpas d/covow KivtT TO, Si-ra, 
and the expression ovos \vpas is used for a stupid man, who has 
no appreciation of music. The Cynics generally looked down 
upon music, and Diogenes had a sneer for those who could tune 
a lyre, but were indifferent as to their soul being in a state of 
harmony. The Satura describes a contention between a devotee 
of music and one of its detractors. It may remind us of the way 
in which Zethus (in the Antiope of Euripides and Pacuvius) 
presses the claims of a practical life against his dreamy, music- 
loving brother Amphion. The prologue opens !.with Phonascus 
(a professor) announcing himself and his accomplishments (I) : 
music is natural to man (II) : it is the harmony of the spheres 
which regulates the universe (III) : workers sing over their daily 
toil (IV) : the vast audience in a theatre is melted by the tender 
notes of the flute, or excited by more stirring tones (V) : the priests 
of Cybele can tame the lion with the sound of their cymbals, as 
the statue on Mt. Ida commemorates (VI) : how much nobler is 
such a profession than the coarse amusements of the huntsman ! 
(VII). To which the unmusical man replies, that after all it is an 
unprofitable art (VIII) ; and that we must admit as great a variety 
in the accomplishments of men, as we see in the colours of horses 


Phonascus 1 adsum, vocis suscitabulum, 
Cantantiumque gallus gallinaceus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. suscitabulum.] 

1 Al. (fxuvaaxla. 


Primum earn esse physicen, quod sit f^vTos, ut ipsa 

vox, basis eius. 

[NONIUS, s. v. basis.] 


Quam mobilem divum lyram 
Sol harmoge 1 aeque clam gubernans motibus 

diis veget. 

[NONIUS, s. v. diis : veget.] 


Homines rusticos in vindemia incondita canere, sar- 

cinatricis in machinis. 

[NONIUS, s. v. sarcinatrices.] 


Saepe totiiis theatri tibiis cerno flectendo 
Commutare mentes, erigi animos eorum . . . 

[NONIUS, s. v. frigi : 1. erigi.] 


Non vidisti simulacrum leonis ad Idam eo loco, ubi 
quondam, subito eum cum vidissent quadrupedem, Galli 
tympanis adeo fecerunt mansuem, ut tractarent manibus ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. mansues, nom.] 


Nempe aut sues silvaticos in montibus sectaris venabulo 
aut cervos, qui tibi mali nihil fecerunt verrutis a ! artem 


[NONIUS, s. v. venabulum.] 

lurgare coepit dicens : 

' Quae scis, age qui in vulgiim vulgas art^mque ex- 

promis inertem?' 

[NONIUS, s. v. vulgus, masc.] 

1 apuoyfi = ' harmony.' 



Equi colore dispares item nati : 

hie badius, iste gilvus, ille murinus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. badius.] 


THE title seems to be only an exclamation expressive of wonder- 
ing admiration. The Satura is directed against excessive praise, 
which is often given out of mere ignorance, as a man may mistake 
a ' bit of glass for an emerald ' (I). Funeral orations are fulsome ; 
they do not discriminate between the worthy and unworthy 
(II). The mincing compliments paid to a pretty woman are absurd 
in their extravagance (III-VII). But there is another side to the 
picture excessive dispraise. Some critics know how to pick holes 
in everything, but do not know how to give honour where honour 
is due (VIII, IX). 


Imperito nonnunquam concha videtur margarita, 

vitrum smaragdos. 

[NONIUS, s. v. margaritum.] 


Qui potest laus videri vera, cum mortuus saepe fura- 
cissimus ac nequissimus civis iuxta ac Publius Afri- 

canus ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. iuxta = similiter.] 


Ante auris nodo ex crobyli subparvuli 
intorti emittebantur sex cicinnuli ; 
oculis suppaetulfs nigelli piipuli 
quantam hilaritatem significantes animuli ! 

[Cp. inf. V.] 



Quos calliblepharo naturali palpebrae 
tinctae vallatos mobili septo tenent. 

[NONIUS, s. v. palpebrae.] 


rictus parvissimus 
ut refrenato risu roseo . . . 

[Ill, V. NONIUS, s.v. rictus (hominis).] 


Laculla in mento impressa Amoris digitulo 
vestigio demonstrat mollitiidinem. 

[NONIUS, s. v. mollitudinem.] 


Collum procerum fi'ctum levi marmore 
regillae tunicae d6finitur piirpura. 

[NONIUS, regilla, dimin. a regia.] 


Omni opstant in ministerio invidum tabes. 

[NONIUS, s. v. invidum, gen.~\ 

Quare resides lingulacae, optrectatores tui, iam nunc 
murmurantes dicunt : 

/io>/i7}<rrai TIS /itaXXoi/ ^ p.ifj.f)<T(Tai. 

[NONIUS, s. v. lingialacae, &c.] 


ANTISTHENES, the Cynic philosopher, had already written a 
dialogue between Prometheus and Hercules, in which Hercules 
reproaches Prometheus for his ill-advised gift of fire to mortals, 


which is interpreted to mean the fatal tendency to philosophic 

This suggests that the interlocutors in this Satura may be Pro- 
metheus and Hercules. In the first part of it, Prometheus bewails 
his terrible tortures (I-V) : in the second, Hercules taunts him 
with the deterioration of the human beings which he has animated ; 
exhibiting the extravagant licentiousness of the young profligate 
with his dainty mistress, and the coarse, swinish life of the 
common citizen (VI, VII). 


Ego infelix non queam 

vim propulsare, atque inimicum Oreo inmittere ? 
nequiquam saepe aeratas manuis compedes 

conor revellere. 

[NONIUS, s. r. compedes.] 


Sum uti subernus l cortex aut cacumina 
morientum in querqueto arborum aritudine. 

[Nonius, s. v. cortex.] 


atque ex artubus 
exsanguibus dolore evirescat color. 

[NONIUS, s. v. evirescat.] 


Mortalis nemo exaudit, sed late incolens 
Scytharum inhospitalis campis vastitas. 

[NONIUS, s. v. vastitas = desertio. Cf. AESCH. P. V. 2, 21.] 


Levis mens nunquam somnurnas imagines 
adfatur, non umbrantur somno piipulae. 

[NONIUS, s. v. somnurnae = quae in somno videantur.] 

1 From suber= 'cork tree.' Al. supernus. 



Chrysosandalos locat sibi amiculam de lacte et cera 
Tarentina quam apes Milesiae coegerint ex omnibus flori- 
bus libantes, sine osse et nervis, sine pilis, purain putam, 
proceram, candidam, teneram, formosam. 

[NONIUS, s. v. putus.] 


In tenebris ac suili vivunt, nisi non forum hara atque 
homines ibi plerique sues sunt existimandi. 

[NONIUS, s. v. hara = porcorum stabulum.] 


Tms festival of Minerva gives Varro an opportunity of dealing 
with those professions under the especial patronage of the 
goddess, and particularly that of the physician. 'Why/ asks 
one ' should I employ a doctor, and have to drink nauseous physic 
and reduce my strength ? ' (I). In preference to this, he writes 
(in true medical style) a prescription for a good dose of wine, with 
no addition but pure water (II, III). The doctor who draws the 
fluid from a dropsical patient is not as clever as an Etruscan 
inspector of conduits ! (IV). 


Quid m6dico mi est opus ? perpetuo absintium est bibam 

et castoreum, levemque robur? 

[NONIUS, s. r. absintium, masc.] 


Cape hanc caducam Lfberi mollem dapem 
de fronde Bromia autumnitatis uvidam. 

[NONIUS, s.v. autumnitas.] 



Quom lympham melius e lacuna fontium 
adlatam nido potili permisceat. 

[NONIUS, s. v. nidus, pro poculo.] 


An hoc praestat Herophilus Diogeni, quod ille e ventre 
aquam mittit ? hoc te iactas ? At hoc pacto utilior te 

Tuscus aquilex ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. aquilex.] 


THIS word, which commonly means a sum of sixty asses, is 
here grotesquely used for 'a man of sixty years.' He is the 
Roman Rip van Winkle, who falls asleep at the age of ten and 
does not wake for half-a-century (I, II). Then he looks around 
and finds everything changed ; himself not least, for he has 
a bristly beard like a hedgehog, and a great snout for a nose 
(III). 'So a pup changes to a dog, or a grain of corn to an ear' 
(IV). The ancient virtues have been banished from Rome, and 
their place is supplied by Impiety, Disloyalty and Impudence (V). 
No ' pious Aeneas ' would ' carry ' his father now-a-days ; but 
every brat is ready to ' carry him off' by poison (VI). There is a 
regular sale of votes in the Comitia (VII) ; the judges make money 
out of the accused (VIII) ; there is only one law observed ' Give 
and take ' (IX). Marcus deplores this detestable change, recalling 
the days of sobriety and steadiness (X) ; when men were not ready 
to rush into the decoy, like so many silly ducks (XI). The young 
Romans resent this protest, and proceed to illustrate in his person 
the proverb ' sexagenaries de ponte ' : which properly means that 
men of this age were barred from the voting-lobby (pans) ; but the 
joke lies in the other interpretation of the phrase, referring to the 
actual casting of old men from one of the bridges over the Tiber, 
as a relic of human sacrifice. See s. v. depantani scnes (XII-XIV). 


O stiilta nostri pectoris dormitio 


vigilabilis, quae me puellum impuberem 

cepisti ! 

[NONIUS, s. v. puellus.] 

Romam regressus ibi nihil offendi quod ante annos 
quinquaginta cum primum dormire coepi reliqui. 

[NONIUS, s. v. offendere = in venire.] 


Se circumspexe atque invenisse se, cum dormire 
coepisset tarn glaber quam Socrates, esse factum ericium 

cum pilis albis, cum proboscide. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ericium.] 


Sic canis fit e catello, sic e tritico spica. 

[NONIUS, s. v. spica.] 


In quarum locum subierunt inquilinae impietas, per- 

fidia, impudicitia. - 

[NONIUS, s. v. subire.] 

Nunc quis patrem decem annorum natus non modo 
aufert, sed tollit, nisi veneno ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. tollere = occidere.] 


Ubi turn comitia habebant, ibi nunc fit mercatus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. mercatus.] 


Avidus iudex reum ducit esse KOIVOV 'Ep^v. 

[NONIUS, s. v. ducere = existiiuare.] 



Quod leges iubent, non faciunt : S6? KOI Xa^e fervit 


[NONIUS, s. v. fervit pro fervet.] 


Ergo turn Komae parce pureque pudentes 
vixere in patria : at nunc sumus in rutuba. 

[NONIUS, s.v. rutuba = perturbatio.] 


Nequiquam is agilipennis anates tremipedas, 

buxei's cum rostris pecudes in paliidibus 

de nocte nigra ad lumina lampadis sequens. 

[Nomus, s. v. pecudes = non solum] 


Senibus * crassis honiulli non videmus quid fiat ? 

[NONIUS, s. v. crassus = stultus.] 


Acciti sumus, ut depontaremur : murmur fit ferus. 

[NONIUS, s.v. murmur, masc.] 


Vix ecfatus erat, cum more maiorum ultro casnares 
arripiunt, de ponte in Tiberim deturbant. 

[NONIUS, s. v. casnares = seniles.] 

1 Al. sensibvs. 



VAKRO wrote fifteen books of Imagines or Hebdomades. The first 
book contained 14, and each of the other fourteen books 49 bio- 
graphies of distinguished Greeks and Romans, illustrated with 
portraits. The following fragments are preserved. 


Hie Demetrius est, tot aera 1 nanctus 

quot lucis habet annus absolutus. 

[NONIUS, s. v. luces = dies.] 


Capella Homeri Candida haec tumulum indicat, 

quod hac letae 2 mortuo faciunt sacra. 

[AuL. GELL. 3. n.] 


Inmortal6s mortales | si foret fas flere, 
flerent divae Camenae | Naevium poetam. 
itaque postquam est Orci | traditiis thesauro, 

obliti stint Komae | loquier lingua latina. 

[AuL. GELL. i. 24.] 

1 aera, if the reading be right, must mean bronze statues. 

2 letae, the inhabitants of the island of los, one of the places 
which claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. 



Tamenetsi, adulescens, properas, te hoc saxiim rogat 
aspicias ut se, deinde quod scriptum est legas. 
hie sunt poetae Pacuvi Marci sita 
ossa. hoc volebam nescius ne esses, vale. 

[AuL. GELL. I. c.] 


Postquam est mortem aptus Plautus, comoedia luget, 
scaena est deserta, dein risus, ludus, iocusque 
et nunaeri innumeri simul omnes conlacrumarunt. 

[AUL. GrELL. I. C.] 


Optimus est, Cleobulus ait, modus, incola Lindi ; 
ex Ephyra Periandre doces cuncta emeditanda ; 
tempus nosce inquit Mitylenis Pittacus ortus ; 
plures esse malos Bias autumat ille Prieneus ; 
Milesiusque Thales sponsori damna minatur ; 
nosce inquit tete Chilon Lacedaemone cretus;' 

Cecropiusque Solon ne quid nimis induperabit. 

[HYGINUS, Fab. 221.] 

[I have followed Bahrens in grouping all these epigrams under 
Varro's name, as, at least, convenient ; but the authorship of several 
is uncertain.] 


FOR a brief period the dictum of Plutarch (Vit. Cic. c. 2) was 
really true that Cicero was the first poet as well as the first 
orator of his time. It was only true till Lucretius and Catullus 
came into the field. In spite of the abuse and ridicule l which 
was heaped upon the poetical compositions of Cicero for excessive 
vanity and expressions in questionable taste, the fact remains that 
the fruits of Cicero's leisure hours mark a distinct advance in 
Latin poetry, and a real development of the hexameter, which 
made the perfect Virgilian rhythm distinctly more possible. 

His Marius is a tribute from one citizen of Arpinum to another. 
Cicero was still young when he wrote it : and there is something 
in the boldness of the man who could choose such a subject under 
the dictatorship of Sulla that may remind us of his famous defence 
of Roscius of Ameria. But the date of the poem is very doubtful. 

The scene is laid at Arpinum. We see Marius beneath the 
famous oak (Arpinatium, Mariana quercus, Cic.' -De Legg. i. i), en- 
couraged by a favourable omen : 


Hie lovis altisoni subito pinnata satelles 
arboris e trunco serpentis saucia niorsu 
subrigit, ipsa feris transfigens unguibus, anguem 
semianimum et varia graviter cervice micantem ; 
quern se intorquentem lanians rostroque cruentans, 
iam satiata animos, lam duros ulta dolores, 

1 Cp. Senec. rhet. Controv. 3. praef. ; Senec. phil. De Ira, 3. 37 ; 
Epist. 106 ; Tacit. Dial, de Oral. 21 ; Juv. Sat. 10. 121 foil. ; Martial, 
Epig. 2. 89, &c. 



abicit efflantem et laceratum adfligit in unda, 
seque obitu a solis nitidos convertit ad ortus. 
hanc ubi praepetibus pinnis lapsuque volantem 
conspexit Marius, divini numinis augur, 
faustaque signa suae laudis reditusque notavit, 
partibus intonuit caeli pater ipse sinistris : 
sic aquilae clarum firmavit luppiter omen. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 48. Cp. Host. II. 12. 200 ; VERG. Aen. n. 751.] 


JWOV i. e. the Meadow ; (earl 5e ironciKcav nfpioxf}, a sort of album 
of different ' cullings.') 

Tu quoque, qui solus lecto sermone, Terenti, 
conversum expressumque Latina voce Menandrum 
in medium nobis sedatis motibus effers, 
quiddam come loquens atque omnia dulcia dicens. 

[SUETON. Vit. Terent.'] 


[FoK nearly twenty-six years Cicero's muse was silent. But after 
his return from exile he resumed his poetical studies ; partly as aA 
alleviation of his own anxiety, and partly as a means of keeping 
up in the minds of his countrymen the memory of his splendid 
services, on which he set so much store. The De Consulate suo was 
the work of his forty-seventh year ; the De Temporibus suis of his 

The De Consulatu consisted of three books, of which the second 
was connected with the name of the Muse Urania ; the third with 
Calliope. The first book is only known to us from a note of 
Servius on Verg. Ed. 8. 106, which tells us the story of Terentia's 
sacrifice : how that when the fire had died down and she was 
about to pour in the libation, the flame shot up again from the 
ashes, thus foretelling that Cicero would be made Consul that very 

M. T. CICERO. 227 

The two verses may be filled up as follows : 


Aspice : corripuit tremulis altaria flammis 
sponte sua, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse. Bonum sit ! 

[SEKVIUS, I. c.] 

(Urania addresses Cicero.) 

Principio aetherio flammatus luppiter igni 
vertitur et totum conlustrat lumine mundum, 
menteque divina caelura terrasque petessit, 
quae penitus sensus hominum vitasque retentat, 
aetheris aeterni saepta atque inclusa cavernis. 
et si stellarum motus cursusque vagantes 
nosse velis, qua sint signorum in sede locatae, 
(quae verbo e falsis Grraiorum vocibus errant, 
re vera certo lapsu spatioque feruntur), 
omnia iam cernes divina mente notata. 
nam primum astrorum volucris te consule motus 
concursusque gravi stellarum ardore micantis 
tu quoque, cum tumulos Albano in monte nivalis 
lustrasti, et laeto mactasti lacte Latinas, 1 
vidisti et claro tremulos ardore cometas; 
multaque misceri nocturna caede putasti, 
quod ferme dirum in tempus cecidere Latinae, 
cum claram speciem concreto lumine luna 
abdidit et subito stellanti nocte perempta esi 
quid vero Phoebi fax, tristis nuntia belli, 

1 Latinas, sc. ferias. A sacrifice to luppiter Latiaris on the 
Alban Mount, held at times appointed by the magistrates (f. con- 
ceptitae). Besides the common sacrifice of an ox, the towns which 
had a share in the Alban sanctuary sent gifts of milk (lacte) &c. 

9, 2 


quae, magnum ad columen 1 , flammato ardore volabat, 

praecipitis caeli partis obitusque petissens : 

aut cum terribili perculsus fulmine civis 

luce serenanti 2 vitalia lumina liquit ? 

aut cum se gravido tremefecit corpore tellus? 

iam vero variae nocturne tempore visae 

terribiles formae bellum motusque monebant, 

multaque per terras vates oracla furenti 

pectore fundebant tristis minitantia casus ; 

atque ea quae lapsu tandem cecidere vetusto, 

haec fore perpetuis signis clarisque frequentans 

ipse deum genitor caelo terrisque canebat. 

nunc ea Torquato quae quondam et consule 3 Cotta 

Lydius ediderat Tyrrhenae gentis haruspex, 

omnia fixa tuus glomerans determinat annus. 

nam pater altitonans stellanti nixus Olympo 

ipse suos quondam tumulos ac templa petivit 

et Capitolinis iniecit sedibus ignis. 

turn species ex aere vetus venerataque Nattae 4 

concidit elapsaeque vetusto numine leges, 

et divom simulacra peremit fulminis ardor. 

hie silvestris erat Eomani nominis altrix 

Martia 5 , quae parvos Mavortis semine natos 

uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigabat : 

quae turn cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu 

concidit atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquit. 

turn quis non artis scripta ac monumenta volutans 

1 ad columen : perhaps, ' like a column.' 

2 serenanti : it was l a bolt from the blue.' 

3 consule, B. c. 65. 

* Nattae species. See Cic. De Div. 2. 21 l Nattae statua et aera legum 
de caelo tacta.' 

3 Martia, sc. lupa, Liv. 10. 27. 

M. T. CICERO. 229 

voces tristificas chartis promebat Etruscis ? 
omnes civili generosa stirpe profectam 
volvier ingentem cladem pestemque monebant, 
turn legum exitium constant! voce ferebant, 
templa deumque adeo flammis urbemque iubebant 
eripere, et stragem horribilem caedemque vereri ; 
atque haec fixa gravi fato ac fundata teneri, 
ni post, excelsum ad columen formata decore, 
sancta lovis species claros spectaret in ortus : 
turn fore ut occultos populus sanctusque senatus 
cernere conatus posset, si solis ad ortuni 
conversa inde patrum sedes populique videret, 
haec tardata diu species multumque morata 
consule te tandem celsa est in sede locata ; 
atque una fixi ac signati temporis hora 
luppiter excelsa clarabat sceptra corona, 
et clades patriae flamma ferroque parata 
vocibus Allobrogum patribus populoque patebat. 
rite igitur veteres, quorum monumenta tenetis, 
qui populos urbisque modo ac virtute regebant, 
rite etiam vestri, quorum pietasque fidesque 
praestitit ac longe vicit sapientia cunctos, 
praecipue coluere vigenti numine divos. 
haec adeo penitus cura videre sagaci, 
otia qui studiis laeti tenuere decoris 
inque Academia umbrifera nitidoque Lyceo 
fuderunt claras fecundi pectoris artis. 
e quibus ereptum, primo iam a flore iuventae, 
te patria in media virtutum mole locavit. 
tu tamen anxiferas curas requiete relaxans, 

quod patria vacat, hie studiis nobisque sacrasti. 

[Cic. De Div. i. 11-13.] 



(Calliope addresses Cicero.) 

Interea cursus, quos prima in parte iuventae 
quosque adeo consul virtute animoque petisti, 

hos retine atque auge famam laudesque bonorum. 

[Cic. Ad Ait. 2. 3. 3.] 



Ferte, viri, et duros animo tolerate labores, 
auguris ut nostri Calchantis fata queamus 
scire ratosne habeant an vanos pectoris orsus. 
namque omnes memori portentum mente retentant, 
qui non funestis liquerunt lumina fatis. 
Argolicis primum ut vestita est classibus Aulis, 
quae Priamo cladeni et Troiae pestemque ferebant, 
nos circum latices gelidos fumantibus aris, 
aurigeris divoni placantes numina tauris, 
sub platano umbrifera, fons unde emanat aquai, 
vidimus inmani specie tortuque draconem 
terribileni, lovis ut pulsu penetraret ab ara ; 
qui platani in ramo foliorum tegmine saeptos 
corripuit pullos ; quos cum consumeret octo, 
nona super tremulo genetrix clangore volabat, 
cui ferus inmani laniavit viscera morsu. 
hunc ubi tarn teneros volucris matremque peremit, 

M. T. CICERO. 231 

qui luci ediderat genitor Saturnius, idem 
abdidit J , et duro firmavit tegmina saxo. 
nos autem timidi stantes mirabile monstrum 
vidimus in mediis divom versarier aris. 
turn Calchas haec est fidenti voce locutus : 
'quidnam torpentes subito obstipuistis, Achivi? 
nobis haec portenta deum dedit ipse creator 
tarda et sera nimis, sed fama ac laude perenni, 
nam quot avis taetro mactatas dente videtis, 
tot nos ad Troiam belli exanclabimus annos, 
quae decumo cadet, et poena satiabit Achivos.' 

edidit haec Calchas, quae iam matura videtis. 

[Cic. De Div. 2. 30 ; cp. HOM. II. 2. 299 foil.] 


Qui miser in campis maerens errabat Aleis, 

ipse suum cor edens, hominum vestigia vitans. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 3. 26 ; cp. HOM. H. 6. 201 foil.] 


O decus Argolicum, quin puppim flectis, Ulixes, 

auribus ut nostros possis agnoscere cantus? 

nam nemo haec unquam est transvectus caerula cursu 

quin prius adstiterit vocum dulcedine captus, 

post, variis avido satiatus pectore Musis, 

doctior ad patrias lapsus pervenerit oras. 

nos grave certamen belli clademque tenemus 

1 abdidit. This implies that Cicero read in II. 2. 
ai5r)\ov, the lect. of Aristarchus, and not api&Kov as MSS. 


Graecia quam Troiae divino numine vexit, 
omniaque e latis rerum vestigia terris. 

[Cic. De Fin. 5. 18 ; cp. HOM. Od. 12. 184 foil.] 


Titanum 1 soboles, socia nostri sanguinis, 
generata Caelo, aspicite religatum asperis 
vinctumque saxis, navem ut horrisono freto 
noctem paventes ti'midi adnectunt navitae. 
Saturnius me sic infixit Ivippiter, 
lovisque numen Mulcibri adscivit manus. 
hos ille cuneos fabrica crudeli inserens 
perrupit artus ; qua miser sollertia 
transverberatus castrum hoc Furiarum incolo. 
iam tertio me quoque funesto die 
tristi advolatu aduncis lacerans unguibus 
lovi's satelles pastu dilaniat fero. 
turn iecore opimo farta et satiata adfatim 
clangorem fundit vastum, et sublime avolans 
pinnata cauda nostrum adulat sanguinem. 
cum vero adesum inflatu renovatum est iecur, 
turn nirsus taetros avida se ad pastus refert. 
sic hiinc custodem maesti cruciatiis alo, 
qui me perenni vivum foedat miseria. 
namque lit videtis vinclis constrictiis lovis 
arcere nequeo diram volucrem a pectore. 
sic me ipse viduus 2 pestis excipio anxias, 

1 Titanum. The Titans formed the Chorus in the npo^rjOfvs \vu- 
Hfvos of Aeschylus, from which this passage is translated. 

2 If viduvs is to be joined with me (cp. ' viduus pharetra ' Hor. Od. 
i. 10. 12) render, ' meis viribus destitutus.' Kiihner joins excipio 
me pestis anxias = ipse mihi paro pestem. 

M. T. CICERO. 233 

amore mortis terminum anquirens mall ; 
sed longe a leto numine aspellor lovis. 
atque haec vetusta, saeclis glomerata horridis, 
luctifica clades nostro infixa est corpori, 
e quo liquatae solis ardore excidunt 
guttae, quae saxa adsidue instillant Caiicasi. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 10.] 


O multa dictu gravia, perpessu aspera, 

quae corpore exanclata atque animo 1 pertuli! 

nee mihi lunonis terror implacabilis, 

nee tantum invexit tristis 2 Eurystheiis mali 

quantum una vecors Oenei partu edita. 

haec me inretivit veste furiali inscium, 

quae later! inhaerens morsu lacerat viscera 

urguensque graviter pulmonum haurit spfritus ; 

iam decolorem 3 sanguinem omnem exsorbuit. 

sic corpus clade horribili absumptum extabuit, 

ipse illigatus peste interimor textili. 

hos non hostilis dextra, non Terra edita 

moles Gigantum, non biformato mpetu 

Centaiirus ictus corpori inflixit meo, 

non Graia vis, non barbara ulla inmanitas, 

non saeva terris gens relegata ultimis, 

quas peragrans undique omnem efferitatem expuli; 

1 animo. In the original, Soph. Track. 1047, the corresponding 
word is vuToiffi. Perhaps Cicero read vooiai. 
3 tristis, i. e. GTirfv6s. 
3 dccdorem, a mistaken translation 


sed feminea vir, feminea interimor manu. 

nate, vere hoc nomen usurpa patri ! 
ne me occidentem matris superet caritas. 
hue arripe ad me manibus abstractam piis. 
iam cernam mene an illam potiorem putes. 
perge, aiide, nate ! illacrima patris pestibus ! 
miserere ! gentes nostras flebunt miserias. 
heu ! virginalem me ore ploratum edere, 
quern vidit nemo ulli ingemiscentem malo ! 
sic feminata 1 virtus adflicta occidit. 
accede, nate, adsiste, miserandum adspice 
eviscerati corpus laceratum patris ! 

videte, cuncti, tiique, caelestiim sator, 
iace, obsecro, in me vim coruscam fiilminis ! 
nunc, mine dolorum anxiferi torquent vertices, 
nunc serpit ardor. O ante vietrices maims ! 
o pectora, o terga, 6 lacertoriim tori ! 
vestrone pressu quondam Nemeaeiis leo 
frendens efflavit graviter extremum halitum ? 
haec dextra Lernam taetra mactata excetra, 2 
pacavit 3 ; haec bicorporem afflixit manum ; 
Erymanthiam haec vastificam abiecit beluam ; 
haec e Taiiarea tenebrica abstractum plaga 
tricipitem eduxit, Hydra generatum canem ; 
haec interemit tortu multiplicabili 
draconem, auriferam obtiitu adservantem arborem. 
multa alia victrix nostra lustravit manus, 
nee quisquam e nostris spolia cepit laiidibus. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. 2. 8, 9 ; SOPH. Track. 1046 foil.] 

1 feminata. Soph. Track. 1075 vvv 8" tic roiovrov Orjkvs fvprjuai TO\OJ. 

2 excetra, apparently a corrupt form 

3 pacavit. Cp. Verg. Aen. 6. 804. 

M. T. CICERO. 235 



luravi lingua, mentem iniuratam gero. 

[Cic. De Off. 3. 29 ; EUR. Hippol. 612.] 


Nam si violandum est ius, regnandi gratia 
violandum est : aliis rebus pietatem colas. 

[Cic. De Off. 3. 21 ; EUR. Phoen. 524.] 


Nam nos decebat coetus celebrantis domum 
lugere, ubi esset aliquis in lucem editus, 
humanae vitae varia reputantis mala : 
at qui labores morte finisset gravis, 
hunc omni amicos laiide et laetitia exsequi. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 48 ; EUR. Gresplwnt. fr. 13.] 


Quorum luxuries fortunam ac censa peredit. 

[NoNius, s. v. censum neulr.'] 


Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi 1 . 

[Cic. De Off. r. 77, &c.] 


O fortunatam natam me consule Romam ! 

[Juv. Sat. 10. 122, &c.] 

1 laudi. Al. linguae. 



In montes patrios et ad incunabula nostra 

[Cic. Ad Att. 2. 15. 3.] 


[On the last day of December, B. c. 45, the consul Q. Fabius 
Maximus having died suddenly, Caesar made C. Caninius Rebilus 
consul for the few remaining hours of the day.] 

Vigilantem habemus consulem Caninium, 

qui in consulatu somnum non vidit suo. 

[MACROS. Sat. 2. 3. 6.] 


Mors mea ne careat lacrimis : linquamus amicis 
maerorcm, ut celebrent funera cum gemitu. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 49 ; SOLON, frag. 21.] 


Croesus Halyn penetrans magnam pervertet opum vim. 

[Cic. De Div. 2. 56 ; see HDT. i. 53.] 


Die, hospes, Spartae nos te hie vidisse iacentis, 
dum sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur. 

[C.c. Tusc. Disp. i. 42 ; SIMONID. ap. Hdt. 7. 228.] 



THE Mime, which originally came to Kome from Magna Graecia, 
was at first only a ' ballet divertissement,' without song or dialogue. 
It received a new impulse in the time of Sulla ; and under Julius 
Caesar it reached its zenith of literary perfection at the hands of 
Decimus Laberius, a Roman knight. The titles of forty-four of his 
Mimes are preserved. The distinguishing peculiarity of the Mime 
was the disuse of masks, and the performance of female parts by 
women. The stock characters of the Atellane do not appear in the 
Mime ; otherwise, the plots were not dissimilar. But the Mime 
had its own set of regular characters the stupid husband ; the 
faithless wife ; the confidential slave ; the soubrette, in her short 
mantle (ricinium), which gave the alternative title of fabida riciniata 
to the Mime. 

[For a general idea of the quality of these plays we may refer to 
Ovid 1 : 

Quid si scripsissem mimos obscena iocantes, 

qui semper vetiti crimen amoris habent ; 
in quibus assidue cultus procedit adulter, 

verbaque dat stulto callida nupta viro ? 
nubilis hos virgo matronaque virque puerque 

spectat, et e magna parte senatus adest. 
nee satis incestis temerari vocibus aures ; 

assuescant oculi multa pudenda pati ; 
cumque fefellit amans aliqua novitate maritum. 

plauditur, et magno palma favore datur.] 
The remains of the named plays of Laberius are very slight. 
1 Trist. 2. 497 foil. 



A promise on oath to pay is a temporary cure for debt. 

Quid est ius iurandum ? emplastrum aeris alieni . . . 

[AuL. GELL. 16. 7. 14.] 



A seller of needles. Apparently a parody on the Hippolytus. 

domina nostra privignum suum 

amat efflictim. 

[NONIUS, s. v. efflictim = vehementer.] 



A quarrel in Olympus over the fate of Rome. 

Licentiam ac libidinem ut tollam petis 

togatae stirpis. 

Idcfrco ope nostra dilatatum est dominium 

togatae gentis. 

[MACEOB. Sat. 6. 5. 15.] 



A picture of a bare-legged, spindle-shanked man, treading cloth 
in the water. 

. . . utrum tu hunc gruem Balearicum an hominem putas 


[AuL. GELL. 17. 36.] 



Perhaps a sneering allusion to the intention attributed to Julius 
Caesar to authorise polygamy, and to increase the police force. 

Duas uxores ? hercle hoc plus negoti est, inquit, coctio : 

sex aediles vi'derat. 

[AuL. GELL. 16. 7. 12.] 


How a father would blind himself, rather than see his prodigal 
son's enjoyment. 

Democritus Abderites physicus phllosophus 

clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, 

oculos effodere ut posset splendore aereo. 

ita radiis solis aciem effodit luminis, 

malis bene esse ne videret civibus. 

sic ego fulgentis splendorem peciiniae 

volo elucificare exitum aetati's meae, 

ne in re bona esse videam nequam filium. 

[AuL. GELL. 10. 17.] 


How I fell in love like a cockroach into a basin. 

Am6re cecidi tamquam blatta in pelvim. 

[NONIUS, s. v. pelvis.] 


The story about Caesar, Laberius, and his rival Publilius Syrus, 
is thus given by Macrobius (Sat. 2. 7) : ' Laberium asperae libertatis 
equitem Romanum Caesar quingentis milibus invitavit ut prodiret 
in scaenam et ipse ageret mimos quos scriptitabat. Sed potestas 


non solum si invitet, sed etiam si supplicet, cogit : unde se et 
Laberius a Caesare coactum in prologo testatur his versibus : 

Necessitas, cuius cursus transversi impetum 

voluerunt multi effugere, pauci potuerunt, 

quo me detrusit paene extremis sensibus ! 

quern milla ambitio, nulla umquam largitio, 

nulliis timor, vis nulla, nulla auctoritas 

movere potuit in iuventa de statu : 

ecce in senecta ut facile labefecit loco 

viri excellentis mente clemente edita 

summissa placide blandiloquens oratio ! 

etenim ipsi di negare cui nil potuerunt 

hominem me denegare quis posset pati ? 

ego bis tricenis annis actis sine nota 

eques Eomanus e Lare egressus meo 

domum revertar mimus. nimirum hoc die 

uno plus vixi mihi quam vivendum fuit. 

Fortiina, inmoderata in bono aeque atque in malo, 

si tibi erat libitum litterarum laiidibus 

florens cacumen nostrae famae frangere, 

cur cum vigebam membris praeviridantibus, 

satisfacere populo et tali cum poteram viro, 

non me flexibilem concurvasti ut carperes? 

nuncine me deicis ? quo ? quid ad scaenam adfero ? 

decorem formae an dignitatem corporis, 

animi virtutem an vocis iucundae sonum? 

ut hedera serpens vires arboreas necat 

ita me vetustas amplexu annorum enecat : 

sepulchri similis nil nisi nomen retineo. 

In ipsa quoque actione subinde se qua poterat ulciscebatur, in- 
duct o habitu Syri, qui velut flagris caesus praeripientique se similis 
exclamabat : 


Porro, Quirites, libertatem perdimus. 

Et paulo post adiecit : 
Necesse est multos timeat quern multi timent. 

Quo dicto universitas populi ad solum Caesarem oculos et ora 
convertit, notantes inpotentiam eius hac dicacitate lapidatam. Ob 
haec in Publilium vertit favorem.' 

Laberius was adjudged by Caesar to have been unsuccessful : as 
the dictator himself phrased it, ' favente tibi me victus es, Laberi, 
a Syro.' He then gave the prize to Publilius Syrus, and to Laberius 
a sum of five hundred sestertia, with a golden ring ; thus restoring 
to him the equestrian rank, which he had lost by appearing on the 
stage. Laberius, though crushed in spirit, took his defeat very 
well ; and, as Macrobius (/. c.) goes on to say, ' sequent! statim 
commissione mimo novo interiecit hos versus : 

Non possunt primi esse omnes omni in tempore. 
summum ad gradum cum claritatis veneris 
consistes aegre, nictu citius decidas. 
cecidi ego, cadet qui sequitur : laus est piiblica.' 



P. VALERIUS CATO, a native of Cisalpine Gaul, had been robbed of 
his patrimony at the time of the Sullan proscriptions, and it is 
possible that the Lydia or Dime (which has been doubtfully 
ascribed to him) deals with this grievance. Bibaculus in these 
fragments alludes to Cato's grammatical and poetical studies (I) ; to 
his debts, which all his cleverness could not ' clear up,' and which 
forced him to sell his villa at Tusculum (II) ; and to his poverty- 
stricken old age in a miserable hut (III). 


Cato grammaticus, Latina Siren, 

qui solus legit l et facit poetas. 

[SUETON. De Gramm. 109.] 


Catonis modo, Galle, Tusculanum 
tota creditor urbe venditabat. 
mirati sumus unicum magistrum, 
summum grammaticum, optimum poetam, 
omnes solvere 2 posse quaestiones, 
unum deficere expedire nomen : 
en cor Zenodoti 3 , en iecur Cratetis. 

[SUETON. I. C.] 

1 legit, perhaps ' reads aloud,' and so make a reputation for them. 

2 solvere. The point of the epigram turns on the double meaning 
of 'sohere'= 'pay,' or 'solve'; as applied to a 'debt' or a 'diffi- 
culty' : and similarly of ' nomen expedire,' meaning 'to elucidate an 
expression ' or ' to clear off a debt.' 

3 Zenodotus and Crates, famous Homeric critics of the Alexandrine 



Si quis forte mei domum Catonis, 
depictas minio assulas, et illos 
custodis videt hortulos Priapi, 
miratur quibus ille disciplinis 
tantam sit sapientiam assecutus, 
quern tres cauliculi, selibra farris, 
racemi duo tegula sub una 
ad summam prope nutriant senectam. 

[SUETON. /. (.] 



(On Caesar's Gallic War.) 

Interea Oceani linquens Aurora cubile. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. i. 3.] 


Ille gravi subito deiectus vulnere habenas 
misit equi, lapsusque in humum defluxit et armis 

reddidit aeratis sonitum. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 4. 10.] 


Pressatur pede pes, mucro mucrone, viro vir. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 3. 5. ] 


Rumoresque serunt varios et multa requirunt. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. i. 33.] 
B 2 



Nomine quemque ciet : dictorum tempus adesse 


[MACROS. Sat. 6. i. 34.] 


Confirmat dictis simul atque exsuscitat acris 
ad bellandum animos, reficitque ad praelia mentes. 

[MACROB. I. c.] 


luppiter hibernas cana nive conspuit Alpes. 

[PORPHYR. ad Hor. Sat. a. 5. 40.] 


Hie qua ducebant vastae divortia fossae. 

[ScHOL. Veron. ad Verg. Aen. 9. 793.] 



Tu quoque tu in summis, o dimidiate Menander, 
poneris, et merito, puri sermonis amator. 
lenibus atque utinam scriptis adiuncta foret vis 
comica, ut aequato virtus polleret honore 
cum Graecis, neve hac despectus parte iaceres ! 
unum hoc maceror ac doleo tibi deesse, Terenti. 



A FREE version of the ' Ap-fovavriKo. of Apollonius Ehodius. Four 
hooks are ascribed to Varro. 


Ecce venit Danai multis celebrata propago ; 
namque satus Clytio, Lerni quern Naubolus ex se, 
Lernum Naupliades Proteus, sed Nauplion edit 
film Amymome Europae Danaigwe super'bi. 

[ScuoL. VEKON. ad Verg. Aen. 2. 82 ; see AP. RHOD. i. 133 foil.] 


Tiphyn at aurigam celeris fecere carinae. 

[CHAKIS. 272 K. ; see AP. RHOD. i . 400 foil. ] 


Quos magrio Anchiale partus adducta dolore 
et geminis capiens tellurem Oaxida palmis J 

edidit in Dicta. 

[SEKV. ad Verg. Ed. i. 66 ; see AP. RHOD. i. 1129.] 

1 afjuporepriai f>paa(itvT) 7007$ OlafiSos. Ap. Rhod. 1. c. 



Te nunc Coryciae * tendentem spicula nymphae 

hortantes ' o Phoebe ' et ' ieie ' conclamarunt. 

[Gn. L. K. 7. 332 ; see AP. RHOD. 2. 711.] 


Frigidus et silvis aquilo 2 decussit honorem. 

[SERV. ad Verg. Georg. 2- 400 ; see AP. RHOD. 2. 1098 foil.] 


Desierant 3 latrare canes urbesque silebant : 

oninia noctis erant placida composta quiete. 

[SENECA, Rhet. p. 313 K. ; see AP. RHOD. 3. 749 foil.] 


Cuius ut aspexit torta caput angue revinctum. 

[CHARIS. 90 K ; see AP. RHOD. 3. 1214 foil.] 


Turn te flagrant! deiectum fulmine Phaethon*. 

[QuiNT. Inst. i. 5. 17 de syllabarum awaiptaei.] 

1 IloXXd Si KtapvietattivfMt>cu, nxdnroto 6v-)arpfs, \ OapavvfCfnov firfaatv, 
'Iriif KeK\T]fvuii. Ap. Rhod. I. c, 

2 Bopeao (itvos . . . tv ovpeat <pv\}C irivaaatv. Ap. Rhod. /. c. 

3 Oii6^ KVVUJV \j\antf tr' dva irr6\iv, ov Opoos J)tv | ^ijtis' ai~f?) 8( 
fj,(\aivo^(vrjv ex fv op<t> vr ) v - Ap. Rhod. I. c. 

* 'EvGa WOT' alOa^ufvn Tvirtls -apbs ffrtpva tetpawai \ ^/ijSa^s QaiQcuv 
nkatv apfjMTos 'HtAi'oio. Ap. Rliod. 4. 597 foil. 



Semianimesque micant oculi lumenque requirunt 1 . 

[SERV. ad Verg. Aen. 10. 396.] 


(IMITATED from the work of Alexander of Ephesus.) 


Vidit et aetherio mundum torquerier axe 
et septem aeternis sonitum dare vocibus orbes 2 
nitentes aliis alios, quae maxima divis 
laetitiast. at tune longe gratissima Phoebi 
dextera consimiles meditatur reddere voces. 

[MAR. VICTOR. 60 K.] 

Ergo inter solis stationem et sidera septem 
exporrecta iacet tellus ; huic extima fluctu 
Oceani, interior Neptuno cingitur ora. 

[PRISCIAN, i. icoH. s. v. extimus.] 

Europam Libyamque rapax ubi dividit unda. 

[Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 20.] 


(THE following lines, translated from Aratus, have been closely 
imitated, or borrowed, by Virgil, Georg. i. 375 foil.) 

1 Said by Servius to have been taken directly from Ennius by 

2 Cp. Cic. Somn. Scip. 4 : ' Quis est qui complet aures meas tantus 
et tarn dulcis sonus ? Hie est, inquit ille, qui intervallis coniunctus 
imparibus, sed tamen pro rata parte distinctis, impulsu et motu 
ipsorum orbium conficitur, et acuta cum gravibus temperans varies 
aequabiliter concentus eificit.' 


Turn liceat pelagi volucres tardaeque paludis 
cernere inexpleto studio certare lavandi, 
et velut insolitum pennis infundere rorem ; 
aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit hirundo, 
et bos suspiciens caelum (mirabile visu) 
naribus aerium patulis decerpsit odorem ; 

nee tenuis formica cavis non evehit ova. 

[SEBV. ad Verg, Georg. i. 375.] 



A specimen of an unnamed passage from Publilius Syrus is given 
in Petronius (55) : 

Luxiiriae rictu Martis marcent moenia, 

tuo palato claiisus pavo pascitur 

plumato amictus aureo Babylonico, 

galllna tibi Numidica, tibi galliis spado : 

ciconia etiam grata, peregrina hospita 

pietaticultrix gracilipes crotalistria 

avis, exul hiemis, titulus tepidi temporis, 

nequitiae nidum in caccabo fecit modo. 

quo margaritam caram tibi, bacam Indicam, 

smaragdum ad quam rem viridem, pretiosum vitrum, 

quo Carchedonios optas ignes lapideos, 

nisi lit scintilles? probitas est carbunculus. 

an ut matrona ornata phaleris pelagiis 

tollat pedes indomita in strato extraneo ? 

aequum est induere niiptam ventum textilem, 

palam prostare nudam in nebula linea ? 

In spite of the licentious character of the Mimes, and the un- 
restrained merriment which marked them, there was always an 
undercurrent of something better ; which showed itself in those 
shrewd maxims of worldly wisdom and even of high morality, 
which the industry of later ages has culled from the Mimes. The 
principal collection goes by the name of PUBLILII SYKI SENTENTIAE ; 
of which the following lines are typical specimens. 



i. Ab alio expectes alteri quod feceris. 

n. Alienum aes homini ingenuo acerba est servitus. 

in. Amare et sapere vix deo conceditur. 

iv. Avarus nisi cum moritur nil recte facit. 

v. Animo iniperabit sapiens, stultus serviet. 

vi. Bonitatis verba imitari maior malitia est. 

vn. Bis interimitur qui suis armis perit. 

vin. Bene vi'xit is qui potuit cum voluit mori. 
ix. Cotidie damnatus qui semper timet. 

x. Crimen relinquit vitae qui mortem appetit. 

xi. Didicere flere feminae ad mendacium. 

xn. Discordia fit carior concordia. 
xin. Etiam celeritas in desiderio mora est. 
xiv. Effiigere cupiditatem regnum est vmcere. 
xv. Fortiina vitrea est : turn cum splendet frangitur. 

xvi. Gravissimum est imperium consuetiidinis. 
xvn. Homo extra corpus est suum cum irascitur. 
xvin. Honesta turpitiido est pro causa bona. 
eredis fletus sub persona risus est. 
millum avarus bonus est, in se pessimus. 

Inopiae desunt pauca, avaritiae omnia. 
hiuriarum remedium est oblivio. 

Inertia est laboris excusatio. 

Legem nocens veretur, fortunam mnocens. 

Loci's remotis qui latet lex est sibi. 

Male vincit quern post paenitet victoriae. 

Maliis quicumque in poena est praesidium est 


xxvin. Nil peccent oculi si animus oculis fmperet. 
xxix. Numquam periclum sine periclo vincitur. 



xxx. Non turpis est cicatrix quam virtus parit. 

xxxi. Occasio receptus difficiles habet. 

xxxn. Pudor dimissus numquam redit in gratiam. 

xxxin. Probo beneficium qui dat ex parte accipit. 

xxxiv. Qui docte servit partem dominatiis tenet. 

xxxv. Quidquid fit cum virtiite fit cum gloria. 

xxxvi. Rapere est accipere quod non possis reddere. 

xxxvu. Ruborem amico exciitere amicum est perdere. 
xxxvui. Spina etiam grata est ex qua spectatur rosa. 

xxxix. Solet sequi Laus cum viam fecit Labor. 

XL. Sat magna usura est pro beneficio memoria. 

XLI. Taciturnitas stulto homini pro sapientia est. 

XLII. Tarn deest avaro quod habet quam quod non 


XLIII. Ubi fata peccant hominum consilia excidunt. 

XLIV. Ubi peccat aetas maior male discit minor. 

XLV. Ubi nil timetur quod timeatur nascitur. 

XLVI. Ubi innocens formfdat damnat iudicem, 

XLVII. Vinim bonum natura non ordo facit. 

XLVIII. Veterem ferendo iniuriam invites novam. 

XLIX. Voliiptas tacita metus est magis quam gaudium. 

L. Vultu an natura sapiens sis, multum interest. 


CINNA was a close friend of Catullus (sodalis, Cat. 10. 30), and had 
been with him in Bithynia. His gentile name, Helvius, explains 
his long sojourn among the Cenumani. A visit to his old haunts 
is here alluded to. 


At nunc me Cenumana per salicta 

bigis raeda rapit citata nanis. 1 

[AuL. GELL. 19. 13.] 


THIS seems to have been a guide-book in the form of a poem, to 
describe for the young Asinius Pollio the outline of a journey he 
was about to take from Brundisium, via Corcyra, to Actium, and 
so along the coasts of Greece into the interior of that country. It 
was probably modelled on the Propempticon of the Bithynian 

Nec tarn donorum ingentes mirabere acervos 
innumerabilibus congestos undique saeclis 
iam inde a Belidis natalique urbis ab anno, 

Cecropis atque alta Tyrii iam ab origine Cadmi. 

[CHARIS. 124 K.] 

1 nanis : this word seems to have been used for a kind of small 



Lucida cum fulgent summi carchesia 1 mali. 

[ISIDOK. 19. 2. IO.] 


Atque anquina 2 regat stabilem fortissima cursum. 

[ISIDOK. ig. 4. 7.] 


Atque imitata nives lucens legitur crystallus. 

[SCHOL. ad luv. Sat. 6. 155.] 


THIS poem [quern libellum decem annis elimavit Serv. ad Verg. Ed. 
9- 35] dealt with the passion of Zmyrna (Myrrha) for her father 

Te matutinus flentem conspexit Ecus, 

et flentem paulo vidit post Hesperus idem. 

[SERV. ad Verg. Georg. i. 288.] 


(Hs seems to have brought from Bithynia a copy of the Diosemia 
of Aratus, inscribed on mallow leaves.) 

Haec tibi Arateis multum vigilata lucernis 

carmina, quis ignes novimus aetherios, 
levis in aridulo malvae descripta libello 

Prusiaca vexi munera navicula. 

[ISIDOK. 6. 12.] 

1 carchesia : l summa pars mali, id est foramina quae summo malo 
f unes recipiunt ' (Nonius, 546. 13). 

2 anquina : l funis quo ad malum antenna constringitur ' (Isidor. 

1. c.). 


RIBALDRY of the soldiery at Caesar's triumph after the Gallic 
War, on the model of the old songs sung by the troops, making 
jokes at their officers (Livy 4. 20, 53 ; 5. 49 ; 7. 10, 38 ; 10. 30 ; 
28. 9). 


Gallias Caesar subegit, Nicomedes Caesarem : 
ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, qui subegit Gallias, 
Nicomedes non triumphat, qui subegit Caesarem. 

[SUETON. d. lul. 49.] 

The introduction of Gauls into the Senate. 

Gallos Caesar in triurnphum diicit, idem in curiam : 
Galli bracas deposuerunt, laturn clavum sumpserunt. 

[SUETON. d. luL. 80.] 


The difference between Caesar and Brutus. 

Brutus, quia reges eiecit, consul primus factus est : 
hie, quia consules eiecit, rex postremo factus est. 

[SUETON. ib.~\ 


Cp. Veil. Paterc. 2. 67 : ' Lepidus Paulus fratrem proscripserat ; 
nee Planco gratia defuit ad inpetrandum ut frater eius Plancus 
Plotius proscriberetur ; eoque inter iocos militaris qui currum 
Lepidi Plancique secuti erant . . . usurpabant hunc versum : 

De gennanis non de Gallis diio triumphant consules.' 



Ventidius Bassus, who had once made his living by looking after 
mules, was elected consul, and these lines were sung about the city : 

Concurrite omnes aiigures, hanispices ! 
portentum inusitatum conflatum est recens ; 
nam miilos qui fricabat consul factus est. 

[AuL. GELL. 15. 4.] 


THE friend and, sometimes, the butt) of Catullus. A man 
perhaps more eminent as a barrister than as a poet. 


Et leges sanctas docuit et cara itigavit 
corpora conubiis et magnas condidit urbes. 

[SzRV. ad Verg. Aen. 4. 58, de Cerere.] 



A virgo infelix, herbis pasceris amaris ! 

[SERV. ad Verg. Ed. 6. 47.] 


Mens mea dira sibi praedicens omina vecors. 

[PROBUS, 234 K. s. i: sibi.] 


Cum gravis ingenti conivere pupula somno . . . 

[PRISCIAN, i. 479 K. s. r. conivfiriv] 


Frigida iam celeri superata est Bistonis ora. 

[PROBUS, 226 K.] 



Sol quoque perpetuos meminit requiescere cursus. 

[SERV. ad Very. Eel. 8. 4.] 



Alluding to Q. Curius, a notorious gambler.) 

Et talos Curius pereruditus. 

[AscoN. 84 K. J 


! Heriaogenes Tigellius offered for sale as a Sardinian slave./ 
Sardi Tigelli putidum venit caput. 

[PoRPHYR. ad Hor. >'/. i. 3. i.] 



(THIS Epic by Varius, the friend of Virgil, is commonly supposed 
to refer to the violent death of Caesar.) 


Vendidit hie Latium populis agrosque Quiritum 
eripuit : fixit leges pretio atque refixit. 

[MACROB. Hat. 6. i. 39 ; see VERG. Aen. 6. 621.] 


Incubet ut Tyriis atque ex solido bibat auro. 

[MACROS. Sat. 6. i. 40.] 


Quern non ille sinit lentae moderator habenae 
qua velit ire, sed angusto prius orbe coercens 
insultare docet campis fingitque morando. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 2. 19.] 


Ceu canis umbrosam lustrans Gortynia vallem, 
si veteris potuit cervae deprendere lustra, 
saevit in absentem et circum vestigia lustrans 
aethera per nitidum tenues sectatur odores ; 
non amnes illam medii, non ardua tardant, 
perdita nee serae meminit decedere nocti. 

[MACROB. Sat. 6. 2. 20 ; see VERG. Eel. 8. 88. ] 



SEE Pliny, N. II. 31. 7 : ' huius (Academiae, Villae dceronianaej in 
parte priina exiguo post obitum ipsius (Ciceronis^, Antistio Vetere 
possidente, eruperunt fontes calidi perquam salubres oculi.s, 
celebrati carmine Laureae Tullii. qui fuit e libertis eius ' : 

Quo tua, Romanae vindex clarissime linguae, 

silva loco melius surgere iussa viret, 
atque Academiae celebratam nomine villam 

nunc reparat cultu sub potiore Vetus : 
hoc en iam apparent lymphae non ante repertae, 

languida quae infuso lumina rore levant, 
nimirum locus ipse sui Ciceronis honori 

hoc dedit, hac fontes cum patefecit ope, 
ut, quoniam totum legitur sine fine per urbem 

sint plures oculis quae medeantur aquae. 

[PLINY, I. c.] 








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